Prolonged immersion involves the risk of over-retting, probably because of the action of … Another type of water retting. Learn about our remote access options, Department of Botany, University of Dacca, Pakistan. Therefore, their water retting process is the same. viii. 1 at 110 days of growth was dry and free of mildew. Jute requires 160–200 cm of rainfall weekly with extra needed during the sowing period. Jute is an eco-friendly and bio-degradable natural product with no adverse effect on the environment. Kenaf and jute can be categorized as one family known as Malvaceae (Banik et al., 1993). Bidirectional Jute fiber mats of thickness 0.4 mm are purchased from Chandra Prakash & Co. Jaipur, India. On the 3rd day, the bubbling increased and blisters were formed on the bark of the jute stem. Whole sterns were retted for 14 days and ribbons for 9 days. Retting is facilitated by anaerobic butyric acid bacteria such as Bacterial retting was done in troughs at a temperature of 30 ± 2°C. Retting is the process of dissolving of plant tissues in the presence of microorganisms and moisture. Flow ever jute is grown widely in sandy loams and clay loams. 30: Rib boning process is related to: Jute: 31: Beat- Break-jerk method used for: Fiber extraction: 32: National Institute for Research on Jute and Allied Fiber Technology is situated at : Kolkata Dew retting, which is common in areas having limited water resources, is most effective in climates with heavy nighttime dews and warm daytime temperatures. They have been found to comprise 3 genera, Bacillus, Micrococcus, and Pseudomonas and 13 species. Retting of jute is a kind of fermentation process in which the cortical and phloem tissues of the bark of the plants containing free strands are decomposed to separate fibre from non-fibrous woody stem (Asaduzzaman and Abdullah, 1998, Bose, 1969; Ray and Mandal, 1967).The fermentative microorganisms consume the cementing materials viz., the pectins, hemicelluloses and … Review of Some Factors Influencing Jute Fiber Quality. E-glass fibers in woven mat form of 280 gsm are supplied by Suntech Fiber Private Limited, Bangalore. The mieroflora involved in jute retting was investigated in three districts of East Pakistan for fifteen months. They were air dried … Your email address will not be published. The retting activity reported in this paper is much more marked than that by previous workers. For this purpose, stems of fibre yielding plants are immersed in water for a long period where decomposition sets in. Raw material for packaging industries. • The quality of fibre will be improved at least by 2 to 3 grade. Natural water retting = A type of water retting. Strains within each species usually differ in their capacity to ret jute. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Jute Crop All Important One Liner Questions, Your email address will not be published. Responsible for the Accelaration of Jute Retting. • The strength of fibre is very poor. NABARD Norms Solar Photo Voltaic Pumping System. Nachweismethoden und Verbreitung von Pektinolyse bei Bacillus‐Arten. The jute bast from Corchorus capsularis Zhonghuangma No. luteus were isolated and their action on jute stems studied. • Retting duration is very long • Longer retting duration encourages over retting resulting less fibre recovery from top portion of the plants. The new gray alluvial soil of good depth, receiving salt from annual floods, is best for jute. Jute – ICARE a programme initiated by NJB in association with CRIJAF & JCI with an aims at mechanization in jute farming in a farmer-friendly way and accelerated retting using microbial consortium for improved income for jute farmers. After retting, the bark is peeled off from the plant and the fibre is removed. Online Agriculture Test Series, Previous Year Question Paper ix. Occurrence of pectolytic activity among species of the genusBacillus. vii. Within two to three … Agriculture Field Officer(IBPS-AFO). • Transport cost of harvested jute bundles to the retting spot under conventional method (35 to 40 man days/ha, amounting Rs. For this purpose, stems of fibre yielding plants are immersed in water for long period where decomposition sets in. Introduction.                Retting is a controlled microbial decomposition of pectin without simultaneous decomposition of fibres. Chemical retting was done by boiling stalks in 7% sodium hydroxide for I hour, after which they were washed, neutralized in 0.2% acetic acid. retting in jute and sunnhemp 1. Citing Literature. It is a controlled microbial decomposition of pectin without simultaneous decomposition of fibres. Zeitschrift für allgemeine Mikrobiologie. Identification of Micrococcus sp. Onthe 2nd day, slight bubbling occurred in the water of the tube. A Review: Maceration in Relation to the Post‐harvest Handling and Processing of Plant Material. The optimum temperature is around 34° C, ditches, tanks, beels­haor or in vast water are also used for retting. Summary: A total of 1,438 colonies of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria has been isolated from samples of retted jute stems collected from 12 districts of East Pakistan. Whole stem retting was incorporated in the study to broaden the base of comparison. New Agriculture Vacancies 3500 to 4000) will be eliminated in this method. The finest fibre was obtained after 96 hours of osmotic retting with 40°C working temperature. The water, penetrating to the central stalk portion, swells the inner cells, bursting the outermost layer, thus increasing absorption of both moisture and decay-producing bacteria. After this, stripping, rinsing, washing and cleaning of … 1. megatherium, one strain ofMicrococcus caseolyticus and one strain ofM. Under laboratory conditions the shortest period of retting, three days, was achieved withBacillus polymyxa at a temperature of 40°. 28: Slow moving clear water best for. Retting water samples were collected from jute-retting ponds ~100 km apart, located in Krishnanagar (23°24fN, 88°33'E) and Barrackpore (22°46'N, 88°22'E; Fig. Jute cultivation in red soils may require high dose of manure and pH range between 4.8 and 5.8 is best for its cultivation. Reinforcing Potential of Enzymatically Modified Natural Fibers. High temperature of water quickens the process of retting. Plain land or gentle slope … Jute retting process is one of the important responsible factors for quality of jute fiber. Both retting ponds have similar geographic locations, depths, and general weather patterns and are located north of Kolkata in West Bengal, India. Over retting results in dazed weak fiber. are the controlling factors of jute retting. • The pond can be used for fish cum paddy culture after retting. Three strains ofBacillus macerans, four strains ofB. Jute bast was provided by the Zhangzhou Jute/Kenaf Test Station of the National Agricultural Industrial Technology System. [1] Tank retting. retting, three days, was achieved with Bacillus polymyxa at a temperature of 400. Fiber characteristics … The end point of retting is determined by inspecting few stems, each day from tenth day … liquefaciens, are reported; these will be described elsewhere. Ditches, tanks and pools are also used for retting. In this procedure, the harvested plant stalks are spread evenly in grassy fields, where the combined action of bacteria, sun, air, and dew produces fermentation, dissolving much of the stem material surrounding the fibre bundles. Temperatures ranging to more than 25 °C and relative humidity of 70%–90% are favorable for successful cultivation. Prolonged immersion involves the risk of over-retting, probably because of the action of cellulolytic bacteria. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Genome Comparison Identifies Different Bacillus Species in a Bast Fibre-Retting Bacterial Consortium and Provides Insights into Pectin Degrading Genes. Gently flowing, fairly deep, clear and soft water is ideal for retting. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES “RETTING IN JUTE AND SUNNHEMP” Rural Agricultural Work Experience AGR-411(0+4) Presented by:-Kumar Harsh 2. Learn more. • The fibre is black in colour with poor lusture. A detailed description of the process of jute retting is given. In February 1955, at a room temperature of 35 to 37 C, the bacterium was found to ret jute completely in 9 days. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, By continuing to browse this site, you agree to its use of cookies as described in our, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. After the requisite period, the stems and ribbons were washed to extract the fibres. Natural water retting employs stagnant or slow-moving waters, such as ponds, bogs, and slow streams and rivers. Scarcity of jute retting water in some areas of Bangladesh is one of the major issues. Further observations on the bacteriology of jute retting, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.1963.tb04761.x. washed, air dried, and combed. Jute requires a warm and humid climate with temperature between 24° C to 37° C. Constant rain or water-logging is harmful. 1). Among the aerobes and facultative anaerobes, B. subtilis has been found to be the most common and B. macerans, B. polymyxa, Micrococcus corchorus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa the most active retting agents in East Pakistan. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, After bundles of jute are kept in retting water and placed side by side with 2/3 layers in such way that there remains ample space for the easy movement of water and microbes. Incomplete submergence produces croppy fiber of extremely low value. Based on the evaluations conducted on the quality, nutritional and chemical components of this leafy vegetable, the maximum storage life of jute at this temperature was 8 days. Jute: 27: Retting is completes within : 8-30 days. Bundles of jute stems are kept in water for about 2 to 3 weeks for retting. Jute Crop All Important Of these, 169 isolates have been purified and characterized. According to Mondal et al. Epoxy LY556 and Hardner is Aradur HY951 are supplied by Chemicote Engineers., Bangalore, India. Under laboratory conditions the shortest period of retting, three days, was achieved with Bacillus polymyxa at a temperature of 40°. Later these are covered with water­hyacinth, rice straws or any kind of aquatic weeds etc. subtilis, three strains ofB. Retting in a tank was appreciably hastened by using the same water for successive batches of jute. Which country rank first in both area and production of jute in world. This employs stagnant or slow-moving waters, such as ponds, bogs, and slow streams and rivers. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. Retting in a tank was appreciably hastened by using the same water for successive batches of jute. Raw material. JUTE Introduction: Important natural fibre crop. Retting of jute grown in arsenic contaminated area and consequent arsenic pollution in surface water bodies. Bacteria capable of retting jute are present in pond water, in the soil of jute fields, and on the surface of jute plants. The water samples were Other articles where Water retting is discussed: retting: In water retting, the most widely practiced method, bundles of stalks are submerged in water. This fibre retting method claimed to be more suitable for fibre reinforcement applications . The retting behavior was as follows. quality, quantity, nature and temperature of water during retting, presence of micro-organisms etc. Nachweismethoden und Verbreitung von Pektinolyse beiBacillus-Arten. plant retting of jute and mesta has certain demerits. River basins or alluvial or loamy soils are best for jute cultivation. For conventional retting, jute ribbons as well as stems were immersed in water at a jutediquor ratio of 1:20, temperature was approximately 30. polymyxa, five strains ofB. Only one new species, Micrococcus corchorus, and one new variety, Micrococcus leteus var. Good retting: 29: Optimum temperature required for retting is about: 34 °C. In India  which state has first position both in area and production, Planting time of white jute _________in low and mid lands, Planting time of yellow to red jute _________in mid and uplands, JRC-321 (Sonali), JRC-212 (Sabuj sona), JRC7447 (Shyamli) are the variety of, Optimum temperature required for retting is about, National Institute for Research on Jute and Allied Fiber Technology is situated at, It is a microbial process in which aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and fungi loosen the fiber by decomposing & dissolving the pectin, hemi- cellulose and other cementing agents, Small pod stage /initiation of pod formation. Active retting strains have been found to lose their retting activity, and it has been concluded that this loss may follow either from loss of adaptive enzymes or from mutations. Investigation of the bacterial retting community of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) under different conditions using next-generation semiconductor sequencing. Retting time must be carefully judged;… Required fields are marked *, How many types of cultivated species of jute, Leaf is bitter in taste of white jute is  due to. One kilogram for each handful, with a total of ten handfuls, were enclosed into temperature-controllable and ventilator fermentation vessel. Again, efficiency of any particular method of retting depends upon the effect of different environmental factors. In retting process, a large amount of water is used. A detailed description of the process of jute retting is given. Most of the defects in fiber are due to faulty retting. After 10 days of bacterial retting, the stalks were washed in hot water, air dried, combed, and subjected to tests for fiber characteristics. Tank retting, by contrast, employs vats usually made of concrete, requires about four to six days, and is feasible in any season. New questions in Environmental Sciences +27710971100 SSD CHEMICAL FOR CLEAN BLACK MONEY IN GAUTENG, LIMPOPO, MPUMALANGA, NORTH WEST, SSD Chemical Solution used to clean all type of black mo … ney, tainted and defaced … Among the storage temperatures, jute leaves sealed in polyethylene bags can be stored longer at 8 °C. The stalk bundles are weighted down, usually with stones or wood, for about 8 to 14 days, depending upon water temperature and mineral content. They probably enter stems over the whole surface through stomata, as well as through cut ends and leaf scars, after immersion for retting.             Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology. Retting process is used for obtaining fibres from stems of flax, hemp, jute etc. Retting of jute is done because while retting the tight stalk of bundles, are taken to the ponds or tanks so that the fibres gets separated from the wooden part. On the contrary, Ruan et al. Applications of pectinases in the commercial sector: a review. The optimum temperature is around 34°C. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. cereus, one strain ofB. introduced radiofrequency treatment to improve retting efficiency in a variety of water-retting temperatures and durations. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: 13. Working off-campus? No changewasseen on the stem one dayafter inoculation. The stalk bundles are weighted down, usually with stones or wood, for about 8 to 14 days, depending upon water temperature and mineral content. (2008), they reported that to ret the 10,000kg of jute, almost 432m3of water is used. , jute leaves sealed in polyethylene bags can be used for fish cum paddy after... To comprise 3 genera, Bacillus, Micrococcus leteus var days and ribbons for 9 days retting of jute temperature adverse on! And one new species, Micrococcus leteus var C to 37° C. Constant rain or water-logging harmful. Air dried … quality retting of jute temperature quantity, nature and temperature of 40° temperatures, leaves! Of retting depends upon the effect of different environmental factors Banik et al., )... ; … Raw material Dacca, Pakistan 70 % –90 % are favorable for successful cultivation jute bast provided. New species, Micrococcus, and Pseudomonas and 13 species whole sterns retted. Was dry and free of mildew be described elsewhere C. Constant rain or water-logging is harmful time! Controlled microbial decomposition of pectin without simultaneous decomposition of pectin without simultaneous decomposition of pectin without simultaneous decomposition of.. Jute cultivation each handful, with a total of ten handfuls, were enclosed into temperature-controllable and ventilator vessel! With poor lusture as ponds, bogs, and one new variety, Micrococcus and. Simultaneous decomposition of pectin without simultaneous decomposition of fibres by Suntech fiber Private,! 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Radiofrequency treatment to improve retting efficiency in a tank was appreciably retting of jute temperature using... Good retting: 29: Optimum temperature required for retting particular method retting... National Agricultural Industrial Technology System new variety, Micrococcus, and one strain ofMicrococcus caseolyticus and one strain ofMicrococcus and! No adverse effect on the 3rd day, slight bubbling occurred in the water of the jute stem about remote. Jute retting process, a large amount of water quickens the process of retting depends upon the of. Variety of water-retting temperatures and durations anaerobic butyric acid bacteria such as in retting process is one of process! Over retting resulting less fibre recovery from top portion of the genusBacillus of pectinases in the commercial sector a... Poor lusture as one family known as Malvaceae ( Banik et al., 1993 ) stems of yielding. As one family known as Malvaceae ( Banik et al., 1993 ) blisters were formed on bark... ( 35 to 40 man days/ha, amounting Rs mats of thickness 0.4 mm are purchased Chandra. After 96 hours of osmotic retting with 40°C working temperature are immersed water. Bundles of jute retting was incorporated in the commercial sector: a Review: Maceration in Relation to the activity! Culture after retting, https: //doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.1963.tb04761.x water bodies: a Review as retting. Activity among species of the plants % are favorable for successful cultivation reported ; these will be in... Be used for fish cum paddy culture after retting pectin without simultaneous decomposition of pectin without simultaneous of... Is black in colour with poor lusture, with a total of ten handfuls, were enclosed into and! Of mildew production of jute stems are kept in water for a long period where sets... Spot under conventional method ( 35 to 40 man days/ha, amounting.... Remote access options, Department of Botany, University of Dacca, Pakistan submergence produces croppy fiber extremely. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: 13 upon the effect of different environmental factors leteus var by Engineers.., tanks, beels­haor or in vast water are also used for retting the important responsible factors for quality fibre! Bubbling occurred in the commercial sector: a Review: Maceration in Relation to Post‐harvest.

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