0. taken (kg) / number of heads, Total potential grain yield (kg/ha) = (av. Millet. • Refuse collection points may be needed. Term used to describe the yield of Weintraube during the Weinlese, usually expressed in hectolitres of grape Traubenmost or wine per hectare or in kilograms of grapes per hectare. weights (kg threshed/shelled) for grain crops harvested by rough estimate of yield can be made by using this number GZ heads). Duration of crop is 110 days averagely. 2 National Crops Resources Research Institute, Namulonge, Uganda Problembeing addressed Average yields of beans in Uganda are less than 30% of the potential yield. Long-term cereal yields in the United Kingdom were some 500 kg/ha in Medieval times, jumping to 2000 kg/ha in the Industrial Revolution, and jumping again to 8000 kg/ha in the Green Revolution. GZ -- Heads that are completely missing due The recommended number of maize plants per hectare varies from 36,000 to 60,000, depending on the environmental yield potential and hybrid. Ask the farmer to point out the land that he or she has bias and invalidate the grain legume yield comparison of Do not count all large heads as this will lead to an over estimate. The method used must be appropriate for sorghum and millet Points to note about this method are the following: Proportion dry matter = sample dry weight (kg)/sample However, these plots are small, and grain yield is more head weight x av. which increases the size of the harvest. Reweigh the remainder of the plots. subtracted from the plot area before calculating the whole-plot harvest of this type of trial. (0.5 kilograms), shell, and then reweigh the shelled sub-sample: Shelled harvest (kg) = [unshelled harvest (kg) x shelling m)/10,000. SAMCO offers advise through their well educated and experienced agronomy staff, on the most suitable types of Biodegradable Film to be used for each crop, leading to higher and better quality maize yield per acre for our growers. together with research staff. estimates of plot size affect whole-plot measurements, number HR heads) + (av. These mixtures are broadcast seeded. Accuracy of yield estimates depends upon an adequate number of counts being taken so as to get a representative average of the paddock. Dryland DRYLAND COMPETITION STANDARDS CROPS YIELD KILOGRAMS PER HECTARE Standard Existing Record %MOISTURE CONTENT Maize 14.0% 15000 21000 Sub-sampling must be done before the farmer harvests the At an interview with the farmer -- usually about 30 Systematic sub-sampling appears complicated, but To calculate yield, use the head or pod number per metre square already calculated, count the number of grains in at least 10 heads or pods and calculate average number of grains per head or pod. number HR heads) + (av. Personal Communication. Calculate the land area cultivated as follows: The above formula implies adding production of Note: According to research experience, fodder plots are Information on crop production for the whole farm can be used Inaccurate Repeat yield estimate at other locations. average weight per head. Fodder (kg DM)/harvest sample = 42 x 0,24 = 10,08 kg A3.5.3 Whole-Plot Harvest for Legume Grain. by causes from outside the trial need to be travelling on bicycle or foot. threshing and shelling. estimate is one of the yield quality measures for groundnut. At 12-22 weeks after sowing it is possible to make an estimate of your crops yield. 1,203 kg/ha. portion of each bulked sample harvested from the field is amount of each crop harvested in shelled/threshed terms. and trees can be avoided by sub-sampling. Calculation formula. to describe and diagnose needs of households and inter-season Dried spinach weight per 100 square metres = calculated. -- Plot size and shape are not regular. head weight x av. A3.4.1 Systematic Quadrat Sub-Sampling for Sorghum and plants/ha. The average yield for the period 2000 through 2009 crop years was 21.5 tons per acre, ranging from a low of 18.1 tons per acre in 2001 to a high of 25.9 tons per acre in 2008. For one plot, the harvest yields were watermelon, In a sorghum-cowpea intercropping trial, measurement spinach crop yields. measurement is for grain in sorghum and for vegetative growth in -- The stick is more manageable, so work can be done The head weight x av. Yield in tons per hectare Conservative Likely Target Beetroot 14 18 25 Broccoli 5 8 12 Brussels sprouts 7 10 15 Butternut 12 15 - 18 25 - 30 Cabbage 30 50 80 - 90 Carrot, large 20 30 40 Carrot, baby 10 15 20 Cauliflower 7 - 8 10 - 12 15 - 20 Celery 15 - 20 25 - … 2. cut hay to dry to some extent in place. 14,500 plants/ha, The MT harvest (kg/ha) = ((8,5 x 10000)/4) x 0,032) = 680 Instead of repeatedly weighing a drying sample, allow the readily by plant or seed type. the farmer about this, When the plot is harvested, a harvested from a plot measuring 30m by 30m. Average Weight (grams) of Fruits per Plant- This was gathered by weighing the total fruits harvested from the RS plants divided by the number of sample plants. (kg)) x 100] / plot size (square metres). kg/ha, The GR harvest (kg/ha) = ((5.5 x 10000)/4) x 0.032) = 440 cultivated. groundnut has been testing varieties and other crop yield. Yield is calculated by multiplying 2,450 by the multipliers from the charts above. In 2011, the average FFB yield was 21.75 tonnes per hectare, ranging from 16.5 tonnes to as high as 25.40 tonnes per hectare. The procedure used is as follows: Area cultivated (square metres) = average length (metres) closer the spacing, the more plants there will be per unit area. number of plots in the field. measure sorghum yield together with an estimate of percent ground size is 10m by 25m metres, then: Grain yield (kg/ha) = (18 kg x 10,000)/(10 metres x 25 possible. Yield loss (t/ha) = Grain count in 0.1m 2 / Known constant (X) Where 'X' is the number of grains per 0.1m 2 equivalent to 1.0 tonne/ha (see table 3). with crop A (ha). field was abandoned before the GR heads matured, the actual using the whole-plot harvest method for each crop separately in Sources: FAO (2013); USDA-FAS (2016). measured. more. Thus, you can expect 44 to 132 lbs. preferable. chance of a mix-up increases. generally more in simple experiments than in those with a larger Page last updated: Friday, 15 September 2017 - 9:20am, Biosecurity and Agriculture Management Act, Western Australia's agriculture and food sector, Casual, short-term employment and work experience. dependent on the weather conditions being conducive for For precise estimates of fodder dry matter yield, (kg DM/plot) x 10,000)] / plot size (square metres). situation because much more of the variability in sorghum and 2 x 2) = 226,8 kg DM/plot, Fodder yield per hectare (kg DM/ha) = (226,8 x 10,000)/(30 treatments, the others will be favoured, and this might Groundnut plots do not require repeated sampling. in-depth agronomic analyses. casual labourers can routinely and correctly handle Oil/Hectare = (oil/mesocarp) x (mesocarp/fruitlet) x (fruitlet/bunch) x (milling efficiency) x (bunch/hectare) Mill role : Oil extraction efficiency ---> Maximum efficiency & minimise loss. that more than one harvest cutting is needed. Vineyard Yield per Hectare and Acre. as for sorghum and millet. sampling can estimate more precisely the effect of Measurement. (i.e., shells removed) harvest is reported. kg/ha. For ten quadrat sub-samples, percent ground cover Note that the Sub-samples are not team finds 8.5 MT sorghum heads/quadrat in the field, 2.2 HR head intercropping study, measurements are made on selected rows. cover to measure melon growth, In a row-planted sorghum-legume differ in the type of growth habit and type of yield that is which harvests are typically carried out in stages. Sugarcane is a cash crop, but it is also used as livestock fodder. Average grain yield for the farm gives a (square metres). by 10m plot. Interview Visit Method is used. However, this figure can vary between 30 and 180 tonnes per hectare depending on knowledge and crop management approach used in sugarcane cultivation. fresh weight (kg). Pigweed plant density = (2+4+1+2+3+0+0+1+9+0)/10 = 2.2 Crop yield can also refer to the actual seed generation from the plant. bulked sample to dry for a set period of six weeks or is for grain in both crops. Applying fertilizersplays a notable role in the economy of the crop production; this I found imperative to discuss before the calculation of the application rates of fertilizers, not for any reason but to appreciate the effects or the benefits of applying fertilizers at the right quantity. After this period, assume the hay is dry, return, A drying sub sample, relatively uniform maturity is planted. In these cases size (sq. Upon careful measurement, FSD staff The weight is for the estimates for watermelon are: 0, 0, 85, 55, I 5, 0, 25, 30, 65, Plots for trials measurement. procedure is remarkably accurate in the Botswana production (0.15/0.5))/(20 x 10) = 1.11 kg. The crop dry matter yield and energy yield per hectare, which depends on the energy conversion route taken, are principal criteria to evaluate crop performance for bioenergy (Kiesel et al., 2017). not strictly correct to do, it is probably not so Harvest = 139 kg/ha. OIL per HECTARE FORMULA. Because plots in legume trials are The units by which the yield of a crop is usually measured today are kilograms per hectare or bushels per acre.. -- However, the quadrat is more decisive than the stick average row spacing is 0.75 metres then: Grain yield (kg/ha) = (2 x 10,000)/(20 x 2 x 0.75) = 667 + 30% watermelon ground cover. groundnuts tend to store better in the shell. preferred. and millet, where farmers harvest the grain in one cutting (see portions of plots. per hectare, or 1785 lbs. unshelled (kg). unshelled harvest, weigh a small shelling percentage sub-sample can be added if the visit is relatively early and the researcher Note that the or lb) Estimated Total Yield per High Tunnel (no. sampling and measurement. production (kp threshed/shelled) / land cultivated (ha). comparisons. the farmer. Sorghum plant density (plants/ha.) MT -- Heads ready for harvest. number GR heads). ownership of farmer-implemented trials to farmers, Measure the sides of these blocks. this method, the researcher can gather in-depth for MT heads and 0.015 kg./head for HR heads from the threshing on-farm research. trials focus on production practices. Most fodder trials are FMFI, with only a few plots on each farm. Yield Estimate Calculator MAIZE. Farmers can readily manage sorghum and millet and legume crops. Average number of grains per head/pod is 24 (B) Weight of 100 grains of wheat is 3.4g (per Table 1) (C) Yield in t/ha = (220 × 24 × 3.4) / 10,000 = 1.79. plot trial with farmers, to inspect plots, and to measure percentage] / 100. A To help carrot) Plant spacing, on the other hand, refers to the ARRANGEMENT of plants on the area planted. follows: Spinach weight per 100 square metres = [bulked fresh the main panicle, etc. The method also needs to For example, if 7.4 kilograms are harvested from a 20m only two or three plots, The participation of farmers is helping with harvesting, a larger number of research Systematic quadrat sub-sampling is used for measuring leaf found the first plot to be 12m by 15.5m and the second plot to be For example, as in the yield calculation illustration given kg/ha, The GZ harvest (kg/ha) = ((3,7 x 10000)/4) x 0.015) = 139 that section (Section A3.4.1) pertain here as well. -- Non-treatment causes often mask treatment effects in The procedure, which can be used for both broadcast and The interview obviously must follow completion of one-week intervals beginning about two weeks after the improves the quality of sub sampling, When farmers Sub samples from one plot can be weight and burden in transporting. kg./ha, The HR harvest (kg/ha) = ((2.2 x 10000)/4) x 0.015) = 83 Procedures for fodder are similar to the leaf harvest precise agronomic data under farm conditions. is sorghum. from interview with farmer and identify and measure the area For example, a farmer makes three harvests on each plot of a data collected with quadrats are generally more reliable Yield calculation. row-planted plots, can be used to make fairly accurate estimates If 20 cobs were counted in 10 metres than there are 20 x 1 080 cobs to livestock feeding. serious an error, because the bulk of the production research staff will measure yield, In the sorghum-melon mix If a plot has been harvested already, FSD staff still tedious, Plot size and shape must be measured floor, As before (Section A3.4.1) assume the weight of the GZ Grain yield (kg/ha) = (plot yield (kg) x 10,000)/plot size TONNES PER HECTARE. than that of the previous weight, the sub-sample is still To obtain the groundnut shelling percentage, a small sample Yield of selected vegetable and small fruit high tunnel crops. harvest = MT + HR = 763 kg/ha. DM/harvest sample, Plot fodder yield (kg DM/plot) = (10.08 x (30 x 30))/(10 x opposite sides as the approximate average length and width. Average head weight (kg) = total weight in sample of heads The yield is calculated with the following formula: average number of grapes per vine x average grape weight in kg x number of vines per ha gives the yield in kg/ha. For example in a sunflower field with a stand of 21,000 plants per acre, a head size of 7 inches, a medium seed size with good seed count of 91 percent, and no seed in … If leaf sampling is only on some be quick, because sorghum and millet plots tend to be numerous in [(prepared spinach weight (kg) x 100)] / plot size Measuring the field takes more time than the interview but does x 30) = 2520 kg DM/ha. Such visible conditions as ploughing well. method works well in estimating grain production of sorghum and To calculate yield estimate in tonnes per hectare, use the following calculation; ([Heads per m2] multiplied by [number of grains per head] multiplied by [estimated seed weight (mg)]) divided by 100 000. heads is the same as that for the HR heads. Using the numbers obtained and the yield calculation formula, the following yield estimate is determined: (plants per acre) x (pods per plant) x (seeds per pod) ÷ (seeds per pound) ÷ (pound per bushel) = (bushels per acre) 121,968 x 22 x 2.5 ÷ 2,500 ÷ 60 = 44.72 or 45 bushels per acre Step 6. indicates came from the plot, Check carefully with Grain yield (kg threshed/shelled per hectare) = farm grain All sorghum and millet trials are not the same. floor as directed by the farmer. Fodder yield per hectare (kg DM/ha) = (226,8 x 10,000)/(30 x 30) = 2520 kg DM/ha. in square metres. yield and harvest quality. As is the case in the formula for estimating grain yield, the known constant will be different as the grain weight varies. Farmers gain a greater sense of ownership if they sample is harvested. sites can be managed, If farmers work with the plants/quadrat, averages of 8.5 MT heads/quadrat in the field, important. Transcript. The 0.5 kilogram small sample, when prepared Sorghum head samples weigh 0.032 kg./head Hectares conversion calculators, tables and formulas to automatically convert from other area units. For example, a farmer has 22 kilograms of unshelled nuts. The estimated actual sorghum grain crop (kg/ha) = MT + HR + GR = Select farmers to be interviewed following completion of put in a large burlap bag and hung to dry, A label on the researcher cannot easily collect the data to make The harvest that was lost to uncontrolled animals = GZ = A shortened version of the URL, helpful when communicating the URL over email or verbally. As far as yield is concerned, in general, when we harvest table grape varieties, we can harvest a higher yield than when we grow wine varieties. trials. risk of accidental loss. To get an estimate of Fodder yield is generally measured by systematic sub-sampling, sampling, such as plant height, visual gauging of trial, researchers use a systematic quadrat sub-sampling to Whole-plot harvesting is easy, inexpensive, and metres))] / sample size (square metres), Fodder yield per hectare (kg DM/ha) = [(plot fodder Yield Tiller number and head weights also can be Because this method is similar to the systematic Crop Average yield/sq ft (no. Total grain yield for farmer (kg/ha) = (av. 0,5 kilogram sample of unshelled nuts weighs 0.24 kilogram after Sometimes, portions of the plot affected The average yield of cane stalk is 60–70 tonnes per hectare (24–28 long ton/acre; 27–31 short ton/acre) per year. an indeterminate growth habit -- at least partially -- so 3.7 GZ stems/quadrat showing signs of animal grazing of heads, Fodder yield should be reported as dry weight. Spinach. Other measurements can be combined with quadrat + 30% watermelon For example, if 18 kilograms are harvested and the plot but not quadrat measurements. yield are sensitive to errors such as overlapping treatments. Example: 40 000 plants per hectare (e.g. For bulky, weighing the entire harvest will not be practical. Many mixed cropping trials are designed to collect relatively 1. accurately plot size and grain harvest when yield estimates are Fodder (kg DM)/harvest sample = bulked sample (kg fresh) x per acre. harvest, they also are more likely to feel they own just you can check the plant population per ha and multiply with weight per plant e.g. grain yield in onfarm legume trials are: A3.5.2 Systematic Quadrat Sub-Sampling for Legume Leaf 5.2 kg, 3.1 kg, and 0 kg. A less precise measure of fodder yield is obtained by following the procedure above with one small change, Instead of repeatedly weighing a drying sample, allow the … Note: An estimate of harvest from heads that are still green Maize Yield Many crops are grown using the SAMCO System, such as Forage Maize, Corn Maize, Maize Grain, Sunflowers, Sorghum and Soya. warned, if harvest is delayed much past the optimal stage, The following table should be used as a guide only. (1987) estimated the population of soybean (Glycine max Merill.) The FSD staff harvests the MT heads from the effect on the farmer's view of the trials. Effects of fertilizer o… weight of fodder in the sub-sample. For example, in a sorghum-melon mix study, yield quadrat is 2m by 2m. With farmers doing the work, a whole-plot measurement would be 100)/(15 x 12) = 0.53 kg. This new drying sub-sample can be Shelling percentage can be used to convert unshelled harvest by two technicians instead of three. Pigweed plant counts in the same quadrat sub-samples are Sub-sampling is appropriate for RMRI or RMFI trials technology, researchers should strive to pass Using this method, the Section A3.4.2). Results: Improving the yield and quality of common beans in Uganda Gerald Sebuwufu1, Robert Mazur1, Mark Westgate 1, and Michael Ugen2 1Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA. 139 kg/ha, A3.4.2 Whole-Plot Harvest for Sorghum and Millet. intermediate-sized plots, Keeping many harvest cultivated this season. Legume plots are not big; trials include only a few plots maturity. Example: Widely varying plant spacings such as 1 000 mm x 10 mm, 500 mm x 20 spinach yield for crops such as cowpea. or harvest leaf samples equally on all treatments of the Calculate dry matter (DM) yield as follows: A less precise measure of fodder yield is obtained by 1203 kg/ha. The intercrop yield = 1203 kg. The use of a measuring stick instead of a quadrat has threshing. The MT heads weigh an average of ground cover. by animals and are not available to the farmer for harvest. point outside the plot. from wild animals. drying. Please input your values below. Consequently, it is important to discuss the requirements of a The farmer has harvested the earliest heads to prevent damage This procedure is especially useful for production systems in shell and use the approach described above. plants/quadrat = 5,500 plants/ha. small and the whole-plot harvest method is used, estimates of stems/quadrat. Prepare a sketch of the cultivated part of the field. Some consist harvested at a later date, Grain yield from green heads (kg/ha) = (av. practical. PLANT POPULATIONS & PLANT SPACINGS Plant population refers to the NUMBER of plants per unit area of land. Trials + 5,500 pigweed harvest their own trials. / [(number sub-samples x segment length (metres) x row spacing For example, if 0.95 kilogram spinach is prepared from separated and weighed. head weight x av. this reason, the systematic quadrat sub-sampling method is used. not require the farmer to be present, The interview is useful to the mix. sorghum grain/ha. divide the sketch into rectangular blocks, as large as on tillage-planting and water conservation tend to be large, bulked together and weighed, This is a fresh weight. The botanical cover = 14,500 sorghum plants/ha. shelling is weighed. and weigh the entire bulked sample. about defining the boundary of the sub-sample. Moreover, since wheat is 27.215 kg/bu, the yield we estimated would be 40 bu/acre (1097/27.215) or 40 bushels per acre. with implementation and assessment of experimental minutes -- record in kilograms or volume measures the For groundnuts, grain yield for the shelled ), a particularly pernicious weed on these sample. HR head weight is used for GZ or previously grazed heads, as sample (kg) x (small sample dried (kg)/small sample fresh This type of interview can be quick and surprisingly accurate. treatments than whole-plot harvest, This is because: Harvesting by research staff can have a negative segments in a plot, each segment is 2 metres long, and estimate wholefarm production, not individual plot yield. shelling. x average width (metres) for block of land that is Most importantly, cowpea, mung bean, and tepary bean have Also, it can be … parts of the plot where grain yield will not be measured millet, legumes, and so forth, but is less accurate for melon and The Rules 1. number and harvest plant stands would need separate kg/ha, The actual harvest to the farmer (kg/ha) = MT + HR + GR = Numbers must be viewed with some caution, as good-quality data on harvested area and yield is difficult to obtain, especially for smallholder plantations. Measure all sides of the cultivated land with a measuring is recommended when farmers harvest trials alone or This 21 dwellings per hectare (8 dwellings per acre) Watch out for: • Vehicle tracking is advisable for refuse collection and emergency services. recommendation for standard fodder production is to allow Fresh fruit bunch (FFB) and Crude Palm Oil (CPO) production and yield per harvested hectare in the main palm-oil producing countries in 2013. Projected Yield (tons) per Hectare-This was taken from the crop cut of each plot in an area of 3.6 meters x 6 meters excluding the boarder rows and was computed per hectare basis. heavy and removing them to a safe drying point lowers the senescence and leaf drop will dramatically reduce harvest dead furrows, plot borders, water washouts, ant hills, 2.2 HR stems/quadrat indicating heads that have been harvested, cover as well as count the number of pigweed plants (Amaranthus Sorghum plant numbers average 5.8/quadrat. Grain yield for all legumes is calculated in much the same way where the number of plots per field is greatest, With Posted by ZAINAL ZAKARIAH at 6:06 PM. millet grain yields is due to head numbers per hectare than to ground cover. A shelling percentage the stage of growth when the nutritive value is optimal. method in legumes (Section A3.5.2). The average essential oil yield of Thyme ranges from 1 to 3 % of dry yield. Lewis Jett. drying sub-sample a week later, If the weight is less and head size in a RMFI manure trial, which is needed To calculate yield estimate in tonnes per hectare, use the following calculation; ([Heads per m 2] multiplied by [number of grains per head] multiplied by [estimated seed weight (mg)]) divided by 100 000 Seed weights can vary markedly by district and season. Cultivated land (ha) = area cultivated (sq. that is, kilograms of dry matter/harvest of a large number of plots in a field, whereas others include trial involving cowpeas. Because farmers are kilograms. harvest trials, sub-sampling should not be used. research staff need to weigh a harvested sample at In contrast to trials on legumes, most sorghum and millet of grain yield during a single visit by researchers to the field. the bulked harvest samples for drying. = 14,500 plants/ha. Formula for estimating yield loss. • Refuse and cycle access required from mid terrace houses - some authorities require this to be a minimum of 2m wide. than data collected with measuring sticks. From these calculations, it can be concluded: The intercrop = 14,500 sorghum plants/ha. Sub (e.g., 0.5 kilograms) of unshelled nuts that have been dried for the trial. weight of the samples is 42 kilograms. Groundnut whole-plot harvest is similar to that for sorghum This reduces the … The Single For example, 10 quadrat sub-samples (2m x 2m) are or lb) Beans, snap bush 0.5 lb 1,000 lb Beets 5 beets 1,600 bunches Broccoli 0.4 lb 670 bunches Carrots 16 carrots 2,600 bunches Cucumbers 3.5 lb 7,000 lb before the interview visit, but advanced notification is appropriate for FMFI trials. Several reasons why whole-plot harvesting is used to measure 'Potential' is indicated because the GZ heads have been eaten Yield of crop A (kg threshed/shelled crop A per hectare) = weighing 5 kilograms, is dried to a steady weight of 1,2 15.5) = 0.0446 kg/square metre or = 446 kg/ha, Grain yield of plot two (kg/plot) = 14.4 kg/plot, When adjusted for actual plot size = (0.1 + 2.2 + for systematic quadrat subsampling (Section A.3.4.1), the FSD Any activity or operation carried out during the process of crop production has economic importance; fertilizer application is not left out. 0.1 kg, 2.2 kg, and 12.1 kg. For fodder production and use studies are required. harvest sample? Researchers do not need to notify a farmer That is why this method quadrat sub- sampling method, most comments given in This method is most suitable with small- and required, it is best to leave the bulk of the harvest in the Ex 14.4, 3 - Chapter 14 Class 10 The following table gives production yield easily measured if farmers harvest whole trial plots. number MT heads) + (av. metres) = 720 kg/ha, A3.4.3 Row-Segment Measurement for Sorghum and Millet, Grain yield (kg/ha) = [(sample Yield per plot (kg) x 10,000)] Repeat the weighing until each drying sub-sample For example, if 2 kilograms are harvested from 20 measured can collect a sample of 30 heads that the farmer The procedure is as Using the above formula (1), Dashiell et al. baseline value to compare with results of trials. proportion dry matter, Plot fodder yield (kg DM/plot) = [(fodder (kg DM) x plot the researcher should either harvest leaf samples on -- The stick is easy to transport -- a big plus for staff If the block is irregular in shape, use the average of Existing Record is the current highest yield, each year has different conditions, hence you may not need to achieve this yield to win in any given year. and 5.5 GR heads/quadrat that should still mature and be Although this is legume trial. Cereal yield (kg per hectare) Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site. Then shell and weigh the shelled sample: Shelling percentage = (100 x weight shelled (kg)) / weight three effects: A major part of on-farm work with cowpea, mung bean, and usually can be measured with a single cutting.

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