[47][48] The same review asserts that antipsychotic medications effectively resolve the symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis. PMID 20997404. "Unlike cocaine and amphetamine, methamphetamine is directly toxic to midbrain dopamine neurons. These drugs increase the level of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which can create euphoria. Recreational use of amphetamine is associated with abuse and dependence. United States National Library of Medicine – National Center for Biotechnology Information. Amphetamine was first synthesized in 1887, but its psychostimulant effects were not discovered until 1929. Severe amphetamine overdose can result in a stimulant psychosis that may present with a variety of symptoms (e.g., paranoia, hallucinations, delusions). Berlin; London: Springer. Simple English: Amphetamine is a synthetic drug. Lisdexamfetamine is the same drug (dextroamphetamine) BUT is bound to an Amino acid L-Lysine and needs to be metabolized in order to convert it into useable D-Amphetamine, it takes time for this conversion to happen leading to a prolonged T-Max and C-max and more stable overall dosage and effects throughout the entire serum level. Vermont Department of Health. The drug is a stimulant: it can help people keep the focus and stay awake. As its addictive properties became known, governments began to place strict controls on its sale. The LD50 (the dosage required to kill 50% of the test subjects) of amphetamine in rats has been found to be between roughly 15 mg and 180 mg per kilogram, depending on the study. p. 3. Amphetamine is considered to be the quintessential member of the stimulant class due to its extensively studied effects and long history of clinical use. Amphetamine is a chiral compound. [4] Heal, D. J., Smith, S. L., Gosden, J., & Nutt, D. J. (2008). It was widely used to treat a wide range of ailments such as alcohol hangover, narcolepsy, depression, and weight reduction. PMC 2478360  Freely accessible. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely with higher doses and may include serious injury or death. [1][2] The class of drugs containing amphetamine includes prescription drugs commonly used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ; Changing speed. ISBN 9780071624428. The pharmacology and clinical outcomes of amphetamines to treat ADHD: does composition matter? [38], Melatonin has been shown to prevent (if used 30min+ before dosing) and reverse amphetamine induced neurotoxicity of TH-pSer40 and calpastatin levels in the Substantia Nigra of rats.[39][40]. The list below includes some known dangerous combinations (although it cannot be guaranteed to include all of them). PMID 15955613. In reality, "Jay" had in fact increased his speed, but at the cost o… [citation needed], At room temperature, the pure free base of amphetamine is a mobile, colorless, and volatile liquid with a characteristically strong amine odor, and acrid, burning taste.[15]. Sometimes, the drug is used for fun or to boost performance. Addiction to speed drug presents in a specific way, and this article’s information will discuss more on the signs, adverse effects, and how to treat an … Speed is amphetamine, a stimulating drug that triggers the brain’s reward system giving the user feelings of pleasure. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2005.04.003. Postgrad. (June 2014). A powerful stimulant that keeps people alert, usually sold as an off-white or pinkish powder – that sometimes look like small crystals How it looks, tastes and smells How do people take it? Its absorption and excretion may be pH dependent. 19 (23): 7044–7048. These include: 1. Lower doses tend to increase focus and productivity while higher doses tend to increase sociability, sexual desire, and euphoria. J. Amphetamine exerts its behavioural effects by increasing the signaling activity of neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine in the reward and executive function pathways of the brain. [18][19][20] Combined action on TAAR1 and VMAT2 results in increased concentrations of dopamine and norepinephrine in the synapses, which stimulates neuronal activity. Methamphetamine (contracted from N-methylamphetamine) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity. Prog. PMID 21272013. Amphetamine is a synthetic drug. It is commonly snorted, inhaled as smoke, or dissolved and injected into a vein. Goodman & Gilman's Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (12th ed.). Independent research (e.g. For example, an object's speed can be measured in miles per hour (mph),; kilometers per hour (km/h); meters per second (m/s), which is the SI-unit for speed. Marihuana, also known as grass, ganja, weed or MJ. "Trace amine-associated receptor 1 is a stereoselective binding site for compounds in the amphetamine class". 2. any of a group of drugs closely related to this substance and having similar actions, such as methamphetamine and dextroamphetamine. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill Medical. Hist. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) |, Narcolepsy: current treatment options and future approaches |. Mental effects may include an intense feeling of happiness, sexual arousal, loss of contact with reality, or agitation. Chemically, it is the parent compound of the substituted amphetamines, a group which includes a diverse range of substances like bupropion, phenmetrazine, MDMA, and DOx. Headaches 6. [21] Consequently, dextroamphetamine produces greater CNS stimulation than levoamphetamine, roughly three to four times more, but levoamphetamine has slightly stronger cardiovascular and peripheral effects.[22][23]. Dextroamphetamine is a more potent agonist of TAAR1 than levoamphetamine. |, Pérez‐Mañá, C., Castells, X., Torrens, M., Capellà, D., & Farre, M. (2013). [9] Chemically, it is similar to methamphetamine. Many of these effects are not life-threatening, but potential dangers exist fo… Paranoia 4. Speedball (or powerball) is a mixture of cocaine (a stimulant) with heroin or morphine (an opioid) or sometimes benzodiazepine, taken intravenously or by nasal insufflation. However, its stimulant effects remained unknown until 1927, when it was independently re-synthesized by Gordon Alles and discovered to have sympathomimetic properties. Sci. New York: Oxford University Press. Progress in Neurobiology, 75 6, 406-33. Med. 99-165). 61 (3): 288–323. Withdrawal symptoms include paranoia, depression, dream potentiation, anxiety, itching, mood swings, irritability, fatigue, insomnia, an intense craving for more amphetamine or other stimulants. Amphetamine is not approved for use in children less than 6 years of age, with the exception of Evekeo (approved for children age 3 and older). Nausea 5. The name 'amphetamine' is a contraction from αlphamethylphenethylamine, Attention disorders are often treated using Adderall or a generic equivalent, a formulation of mixed amphetamine salts that contain both racemic-amphetamine, in the sulfate and aspartate monohydrate salt forms, and enantiopure dextroamphetamine, in the sulfate and saccharate salt forms, mixed to yield a final ratio of 3 parts dextroamphetamine to 1 part levoamphetamine. Med. "Historical overview of methamphetamine". [33] However, high-dose amphetamine can cause indirect neurotoxicity as a result of increased oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species and autoxidation of dopamine. Speed drug is an illicit substance that belongs to a group of stimulant drugs known as amphetamines. Retrieved 18 August 2014. (1978). When prescription amphetamines are taken orally and in low doses, drug abuse and addiction is not a serious risk. PMC 4183197 Freely accessible. Chemically, it is similar to methamphetamine. [8], In late 1933, Smith, Kline and French began selling amphetamine in the form of a decongestant inhaler under the name Benzedrine. Amphetamine presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of amphetamine most stimulants will have a reduced effect. Potential adverse effects of amphetamine treatment on brain and behavior: a review. No pharmacological use was found for amphetamine until 1927, when pioneer psychopharmacologist Gordon Alles resynthesized it. "Miscellaneous Sympathomimetic Agonists". ISBN 9780071481274. p. 370. In the first place, it must be taken into account that the consumption of … (PubMed.gov / NCBI) |, Update on Amphetamine Neurotoxicity and Its Relevance to the Treatment of ADHD |, Bowyer JF, Hanig JP (November 2014). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. Many people use it illegally, but it is occasionally used legally by prescription to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or obesity as "Desoxyn". Jg. The chemical structure of amphetamine consists of phenethylamine, a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain, with an additional methyl substitution at Rα. Although many psychoactive substances are reasonably safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when combined with other substances. Many side effects associated with the drug are adverse effects that negatively impact users. Depending on purity, amphetamine doses will vary. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). A version of the drug, created by "Jay", seemingly caused the loss of his powers, as well as his cellular degenerative disease. There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. During 2012, approximately 5.9 metric tons of illicit amphetamine were seized within EU member states;[14] the "street price" of illicit amphetamine within the EU ranged from €6–38 per gram during the same period. The generally tolerant official drug policy in the Third Reich, the period of Nazi control of Germany from the 1933 Machtergreifung to Germany's 1945 defeat in World War II, was inherited from the Weimar government which was installed in 1919 following the dissolution … [3] The name amphetamine is derived from its chemical name: alpha-methylphenethylamine. [13], Amphetamine is still illegally synthesized and sold on the black market, primarily in European countries. Speed (droga) Izvor: Wikipedija. Baumann, M., Carroll, F.I., Dersch, C.M., Partilla, J.S., Rothman, R.B., Romero, D., & Rice, K. (2001). [11][12] Allied Sci. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Some interactions listed have been sourced from TripSit. 1 (3): 172–182. In Brunton LL, Chabner BA, Knollmann BC. Retrieved 13 October 2013. Delusions These effects are typically short-term and last only as long as the user has the substance in their systems. Wells first started to develop a speed-enhancing drug after Zoom appeared on his Earth, and it was meant to aid "Jay Garrick" in his struggles against the super-villain Zoom. 22 (250): 205–218. [42][43] Tremors 8. Molecular Psychiatry, 14(2), 123. Bull. DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. Prijeđi na navigaciju Prijeđi na pretraživanje. Retrieved 29 January 2012. Angrist, B., & Sudilovsky, A. PubChem Compound. [7] Methamphetamine (also called meth or speed) is a man-made stimulant drug. It is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance. Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review. PMID 23539642. Neurobiol. See responsible use section. It is worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a consistent or reliable manner, although higher doses are more likely to induce the full spectrum of effects. [5][6] Additionally, it sees widespread illicit use as a performance enhancing agent and recreational substance. This page was last changed on 19 April 2020, at 05:37. 27 (6): 479–496. Amphetamine exerts its behavioral effects by altering the use of monoamines as neuronal signals in the brain, primarily in catecholamine neurons in the reward and executive function pathways of the brain. It was one of a series of compounds related to the plant derivative Ephedrine, which had been purified two years previously by Nagayoshi Nagai. [47] A review on treatment for amphetamine abuse-induced psychosis states that about 5–15% of users fail to recover completely. The Emerging Role of Trace Amine Associated Receptor 1 in the Functional Regulation of Monoamine Transporters and Dopaminergic Activity (PubMed.gov / NCBI) |. "Methamphetamine for Hitler's Germany: 1937 to 1945". Speed also goes by the street names “Ice, Crystal meth and Shabu ” 2 The drug works using Dopamine. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. As a result, they should be treated with a healthy amount of skepticism. Central nervous system stimulants: historical aspects and clinical effects. See also drug abuse and drug dependence. Using speed can lead to health, social and financial problems. "World Drug Report 2014" (PDF). Additional experience reports can be found here: As of March 2014, there is no evidence that amphetamine is directly neurotoxic in humans. Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), a literature based on anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2011.10.007. (2013). [14] Outside Europe, the illicit market for amphetamine is much smaller than the market for methamphetamine and MDMA. Berman, S. M., Kuczenski, R., McCracken, J. T., & London, E. D. (2009). J. Psychopharmacol. [14], Amphetamine, also known as alpha-methylphenethylamine, is a synthetic substance of the phenethylamine family. ISBN 9780071481274. In Sydor A, Brown RY. "VMAT2: a dynamic regulator of brain monoaminergic neuronal function interacting with drugs of abuse". Alles was part of a group of researchers looking for an ephedrine substitute. Lewin AH, Miller GM, Gilmour B (December 2011). doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05906.x. Pharmacologic mechanisms of crystal meth. Important information. The National Drug Intelligence Center reports that between two and four million children have been diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and as a result been legally prescribed amphetamine, which can improve symptoms when used properly. The addictive potential of this substance is rather high as well. Hist. PMC 3236098 Freely accessible. He called the compound "phenylisopropylamine". It is odorless and has a slightly bitter taste. Treatment for amphetamine psychosis. [47] Psychosis very rarely arises from therapeutic use.[49][50]. Amphetamine-type central nervous system stimulants release norepinephrine more potently than they release dopamine and serotonin. It also decreases appetite and fatigue. 318, 321. The reinforcing and motivational salience-promoting ef… Speed is a drug that targets your brain’s ‘reward system’ to produce a positive sensation that can become addictive. "Amphetamine, past and present – a pharmacological and clinical perspective". Initially, amphetamine was more popularly used to reduce appetite and to control weight. Učinci su, na srediÅ¡nji živčani sustav, jači nego kod amfetamina. pp. "Making the first anti-depressant: amphetamine in American medicine, 1929–1950". PMID 22037049. These drugs increase the level of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which can create euphoria. Defalque RJ, Wright AJ (April 2011). It is also used to treat symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the daytime drowsiness symptoms of narcolepsy, amongst others. Methamphetamine is classified as a Schedule II stimulant by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), which means it has a high potential for abuse and is available legally only by prescription. ", Dopaminergic neuron-specific oxidative stress caused by dopamine itself. It also decreases appetite and fatigue. They cause communication between the brain and the body to accelerate. Dosages from TripSit Factsheets ISBN 9780195030570. It was then introduced i… 10 Things You Should Know About Speed drug. Westfall DP, Westfall TC (2010). Amphetamine was first synthesized in Germany in 1887 by the Romanian chemist Lazăr Edeleanu, who named it phenylisopropylamine. 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