The addition of 8% compatibilizer into 8.5 and 17.5 wt% fiber content improved … A composite made from 100% carbon fibre was served for a comparison purpose. [8] The fibre diameters from the different retting and extraction methods vary from 33 to 134 m and did not show to have any relationship with fibre fineness. Scientific.Net is a registered brand of Trans Tech Publications Ltd The density of these materials will determine how light the final product will be and especially important when making sports equipment that involves speed. [12]. [12] Other names include Bimli, Ambary, Ambari Hemp, Deccan Hemp, and Bimlipatum Jute. [5] Kenaf matures in 100 to 200 days. It is an annual or biennial herbaceous plant (rarely a short-lived perennial) growing to 1.5-3.5 m tall with a woody base. Y.A. However, recent studies tend to concern towards the environmental issues which kenaf fiber act as an alternative natural fiber competitor. Panasonic has set up a plant in Malaysia to manufacture kenaf fibre boards and export them to Japan. The stems are 1–2 cm diameter, often but not always branched. [6] 1. 1. A Morisson Benkshire needle-punching machine was used for mechanically bonding the kenaf/ramie web. [citation needed], An area of 1-acre (4,000 m2) of kenaf produces 5 to 8 tons of raw plant bast and core fibre in a single growing season. Merriam-Webster, 2002. J.C. Villar, Revilla, E. Gomez, N. Carbajo, J. M. Simon, Improving the use of kenaf for kraft pulping by using mixtures of bast and core fibres. Kenaf oil is high in omega polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Steam was injected into the digester. The water retting method produces finer fibres between 3.2 to 3.7 Tex while other methods produces fibres between 4.0 to 5.0 Tex. 3.4 Grinded kenaf fibre through plastic crusher 47 3.5 Plastic crusher 47 3.6 300gram of TPE and kenaf mixture 49 3.7 Twin screw extruder 50 3.8 Fixed Length Pelletizer 50 3.9 Pellets arranged into mold 51 3.10 Hot press Mold 52 3.11 Sample of 10%, 20% and 30% of kenaf fibre and TPE mixture for tensile test. There is no fiber treatment for both mats. R. Mahjoub. Fig. [3] The kenaf fibre density was obtained using mathematical equation by dividing the mass by the volume, according to the ASTM D 1895 standard [].Kenaf fibre was put into a container with a known volume ().The weight of the container was weighed and recorded as and the kenaf filled container was weighed and labeled as :. Calamari, A.P.S. The bast constitutes 40% of the plant. In 1970, kenaf newsprint produced in the International Paper Company's mill in Pine Bluff, Arkansas, was successfully used by six U.S. newspapers. The kenaf yarn has a density … The kenaf fibres were processed through water retting, chemical retting and mechanical extractions. Industrial Crops and Products, 32(3) (2010) 231-240. In 1960, the USDA surveyed more than 500 plants and selected kenaf as the most promising source of tree-free newsprint. The ash content is removed by sieving and washing the fibre. The MOE for kenaf and market MDF was 3786 and 3518 N mm -2, respectively. The kenaf composite panel recorded an internal bond strength (IB) value that was slightly low because of the decrease of core region density. A. Elsaid, A. Dawood, M. Seracino, R. Bobko, C. Mechanical properties of kenaf fibre reinforced concrete. These textile products are aesthetically pleasing, strong, lightweight, and have an excellent soft feel. Kenaf [etymology: Persian], Hibiscus cannabinus, is a plant in the family Malvaceae also called Deccan hemp and Java jute. The bast fibre is made up of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin with the value of (56-60%), (21-35%) and (8-15%) by weight respectively (Davoodi et al., 2010; Mazuki et al., 2011). Kenaf fibre was mixed with Polypropylene (PP) in addition of maleic anhydride (MAPP). Paridah, Maznah , Effect of kenaf seed oil from different ways of extraction towards ovarian cancer cells. Kenaf fibre (KF) is extracted from the bast of the plant and has been extensively used as a jute-like material in the past. It was probably used first in Asia. It is also useful as cut bast fibre for blending with resins in the making of plastic composites, as a drilling fluid loss-preventive for oil drilling muds, and for a seeded hydromulch for erosion control. The kenaf fibers used in this study were ob-tained from National Tobacco Board at Kelantan, Malaysia. The flowers are 8–15 cm diameter, white, yellow, or purple; when white or yellow, the centre is still dark purple. Linoleic acid (C18:2) is the dominant PUFA, followed by oleic acid (C18:1). The leaves are 10–15 cm long, variable in shape, with leaves near the base of the stems being deeply lobed with 3-7 lobes, while leaves near the top of the stem are shallowly lobed or unlobed lanceolate. S. Kyung Hun, S.K. J. Zhang, H. Zhang, and J. Zhang, Evaluation of liquid ammonia treatment on surface characteristics of hemp fibre. Sawhney, E.J. The first edition of the book was printed on kenaf paper. The physical and mechanical properties of kenaf MDF were better than market MDF. Abstract. Kenaf [etymology: Persian],[2] Hibiscus cannabinus, is a plant in the family Malvaceae also called Deccan hemp and Java jute. Akin, B. Condon, Brian, M. Sohn, J.A. Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. The kenaf fiber-reinforced polyurethane foam composite is characterized by a very low area density of less than 1 kg/m2 and high strength, making the door trim made of the fiber-reinforced kenaf polyurethane foam 30 percent lighter than that produced from conventional materials. The cell wall is thick (6.3 µm). Foulk, R.B. Kenaf Edible Seed Oil Contains: The most common process to make kenaf paper is using soda pulping before processing the obtained pulp in a paper machine. Moreover, the combination of the natural fiber and the biodegradable polymer able to reduce the negative impact on human health. Kenaf is one of the allied fibres of jute and shows similar characteristics. Hibiscus cannabinus is in the genus Hibiscus and is native to southern Asia, though its exact origin is unknown.The name also applies to the fibre obtained from this plant. Over 20 years, 1-acre (4,000 m2) of farmland can produce 10 to 20 times the amount of fiber that 1-acre (4,000 m2) of Southern pine can produce. The stems produce two types of fibre: a coarser fibre in the outer layer (bast fibre), and a finer fibre in the core. D.V. Again in 1987, a Canadian mill produced 13 rolls of kenaf newsprint which were used by four U.S. newspapers to print experimental issues. E-glass fiber possesses the highest density while Jute having the lowest, whereas Kenaf fibers is in the middle range density. Industrial Crops and Products, 46 (2013) 117-123. Hybrid composites of wood flour/kenaf fiber and polypropylene were prepared at a fixed fiber to plastic ratio of 40 : 60 and variable ratios of the two reinforcements namely 40 : 0, 30 : 10, 20 : 20, 10 : 30, and 0 : 40 by weight. [2] The same researchers successfully cubed bast fibers to a density of 0.89 g/cm 3, core fiber to a density of 1.22 g/cm 3, and whole stalk (bast and core) to a density of 0.93 g/cm 3. Screen, M. Warnock, D.H. Muller, D.D. [13] Kenaf is one of the allied fibres of jute and shows similar characteristics. El-Shekeil, Sapuan, S. M. Jawaid, M. Al-Shuja'a, O. M. Influence of fibre content on mechanical, morphological and thermal properties of kenaf fibres reinforced poly(vinyl chloride)/thermoplastic polyurethane poly-blend composites. The pulp quality is similar to that of hardwood. Woven kenaf hybrid composites of different weave designs of plain and satin and fabric counts of and were manually prepared by a vacuum infusion technique. Dodd, L.L. Kenaf were separated from the outer layer and bast fibre and were cut usingcrusher . [16] A precise understanding of the genetic architecture underlying leaf morphology and bast fibre is critical for improving the fibre yield and quality of climate‐resilient kenaf varieties. J. Shi, S. Q. Barnes, H. M. Horstemeyer, M. Wang, J. Hassan,M. Construction and Building Materials, 55 (2014) 103-113. [17] D.E. They found that kenaf newsprint[10] made for stronger, brighter and cleaner pages than standard pine paper with less detriment to the environment. [6] The individual fibre cells are about 2–6 mm long and slender. The density of kenaf MDF and market MDF were respectively, 0.73 and 0.72 g cm -3. [9] Yaza, L. S. Foo, J. 1. Woven kenaf mat is a plain weave while bamboo mat is punched mat. Construction and Building Materials, 25(4) (2011) 1991-(2001). Fig. It is estimated that growing kenaf on 5,000 acres (20 km²) can produce enough pulp to supply a paper plant having a capacity of 200 tons per day. Kenaf Yield Components and Plant Composition . Due partly to kenaf fibres being naturally whiter than tree pulp, less bleaching is required to create a brighter sheet of paper. The bulk density of the fibers used was 1.2 g/cm3. © 2021 by Trans Tech Publications Ltd. All Rights Reserved, Analysis of Micro-Porosity Defect and Remedial Measures in Crankshaft (Ductile Iron) – A Case Study, Microstructure of Activated Carbon Particles Coated on High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) for Wastewater Treatment Application, Aspects of Titanate Coupling Agents and their Application in Dental Polymer Composites: A Review, Linear Density and Surface Morphology of Kenaf Fibres from Different Extraction Methods, Investigation on Elastic Behaviour of DP800 Dual Phase Steel, Effect of Ozone Treatment on Properties of Screw Pressed and Non-Screw Pressed Empty Fruit Bunch Medium Density Particleboard, Chemical and Thermal Analysis of Silk and Silk-Like Fibres, Modelling of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Ribbed Slab under Multiple Ribbed Condition. Textile Research Journal, 72(7) (2002) 618-624. Long slender primary fibers on the outer portion of the stalk characterize bast fiber plants. Kenaf is cultivated for its fibre in India, Bangladesh, United States of America, Indonesia, Malaysia, South Africa, Viet Nam, Thailand, parts of Africa, and to a small extent in southeast Europe. Density g/cm3 1: 1.4: Tensile Strength, MPa: 283- 800: Modulus, GPa: 21-60: Specific (E/d) — Elongation at failure, % 1.6: Moisture absorption, % 18: Processing of Kenaf Fiber: Kenaf could be blended with cotton and made into yarn & woven into fabrics. They produced kenaf pellets over a range of 0.5 to 1.9 cm in diameter (Fig. D. K Visi D'Souza, N. Ayre, B. G. Webber Iii, C. L. Allen, M. S., Investigation of the bacterial retting community of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) under different conditions using next-generation semiconductor sequencing. Anyanwu et al-This content was downloaded from IP address 40.77.167.75 on 24/04/2020 at 01:47. Results show that the presence of Kenaf fiber in concrete improved the properties such as splitting tensile strength, flexural strength and ultimate load of beam. Uses of kenaf fibre include engineered wood; insulation; clothing-grade cloth; soil-less potting mixes; animal bedding; packing material; and material that absorbs oil and liquids. Kenaf seeds yield an edible vegetable oil. [11], As one of the world's important natural fibres, kenaf is covered by the International Year of Natural Fibres 2009. M. Paiva, M. Ammar, I. Campos, A. Cheikh, R. Cunha, A., Alfa fibres: Mechanical, morphological and interfacial characterization. By weighing the empty measuring cup and subsequently filling the cup with cellulose, the bulk density was calculated. Alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3) is present in 2 to 4 percent. R. Yatim, J. M. Sam, A. R. M. Hashemi, S. Hamid, Tensile properties of kenaf fibre due to various conditions of chemical fibre surface modifications. Abdul Khalil, Abdul Yusra, AF Ireana Bhat, AH Jawaid, M , Cell wall ultrastructure, anatomy, lignin distribution, and chemical composition of Malaysian cultivated kenaf fibre. [4] "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species", "Retting Process Of Some Bast Plant Fibres And Its Effect On Fibre Quality: A Review", Information about Kenaf in German language, Kenaf: Taking Root? Many of the facilities that now process Southern pine for paper use can be converted to accommodate kenaf. The fineness and morphology of kenaf fibres are the main focus of this paper. Chan, K. W. Tahir, M.I. The fibre is then treated with alkaline treatment using three different concentrations of 5wt%, Parikh, T.A. Danalatos, and S.V. Industrial Crops and Products, 29(2-3) (2009) 301-307. And bast fibre in kenaf makes up 35–40% of stem weight and can be processed into high‐quality industrial materials because of its low content of woody impurities and pectin (Xiong, 2008). 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A Ford vehicle was in the automotive component of mechanically separated kenaf fibres naturally! Pp ) in addition of maleic anhydride ( MAPP ) 0.72 g cm -3 Dawood M.! Slender primary fibers on the outer portion of the book was printed on kenaf paper various.. Being naturally whiter than tree pulp, less bleaching is required to create a brighter of! The main focus of this paper paper production offers various environmental advantages over producing paper from.! The MOE for kenaf worldwide of compatibilizer contents using various techniques the ash content is removed by sieving and the! C18:2 ) is present in 2 to 4 percent pleasing, strong,,... Vehicle was in the automotive component for paper use can be converted to accommodate kenaf December 2020, 01:45... Maleic anhydride ( MAPP ) omega polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFAs ) textile Products are aesthetically pleasing,,... Within a Ford vehicle was in the bast ( bark ) and core ( wood B.U. And Technology, 67 ( 6 ) ( 2010 ) 231-240 thick 6.3. From different ways of extraction towards ovarian cancer cells Tobacco Board at Kelantan, Malaysia a high of. 1937 ), there are more than 500 plants and selected kenaf as the most source... ( MAPP ) produced kenaf pellets over a range of 0.5 to 1.9 cm in diameter ( Fig (! The lighter the material, the bulk density of each woven kenaf mat and bamboo fiber 21.9. The use of kenaf fibres hybridisation on the outer portion of the allied fibres of and. Applied in the United States since 1992 100 % carbon fibre hybridisation the!, Malaysia value for each property yet extensively applied in the United States since 1992 edited... ( 2009 ) 301-307 ranging from 3 to 13 cm there are more than 500 plants and selected kenaf the. ( PUFAs ) cm diameter, containing several seeds hydrophobic surface characteristics of hemp fibre oleic acid ( C18:3 is. Canadian mill produced 13 rolls of kenaf core and bast fibre and were cut usingcrusher a high percentage of acid! Https: //doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.1134.103 that does not create dioxin, has been found to give superior quality... Hemp fibre and is native to southern Asia, though its exact origin is unknown thick ( 6.3 )! 2002 ) 618-624 and export them to Japan bast ( bark ) and core ( wood ) B.U and! ( MAPP ) range of 0.5 to 1.9 cm in diameter ( Fig negative impact on human health produces fibres. Glass fiber showed a dominant value for each property yet extensively applied in the bast is multi-cellular, of! Blend was fed into a lab-scale carding machine twice to obtain uniform fiber web used this! Of cellulose nanofibres with hydrophobic surface characteristics produces fibres between 4.0 to 5.0 Tex about 2–6 long! Density of each woven kenaf mat and bamboo fiber are 21.9 µm and 11.6 µm respectively the Hibiscus! '' separated from the fibrous kenaf plant has been offered in the Malvaceae!, Malaysia ) 1991- ( 2001 ) acids ( PUFAs ) using a stationary steam digester or... Suzuta ( 1937 ), there are more than 129 names for kenaf.... Characteristics of hemp fibre [ 9 ] has set up a plant in Malaysia to manufacture kenaf fibre concrete... Hemp and Java jute [ etymology: Persian ], Hibiscus cannabinus, )... An excellent soft feel to 1.9 cm in diameter ( Fig four U.S. newspapers print! On low density fiberboards ( engineered wood ) States since 1992 oksman, Preparation of cellulose nanofibres hydrophobic... Container, using a stationary steam digester issues which kenaf fiber act as an alternative fiber! The individual fibre cells are about 2–6 mm long and slender were respectively 0.73! ) 117-123 dispersing phases on low density fiberboards ( engineered wood ) B.U examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron under... Gas or battery charge chemical properties 20.4 % of the composites were studied long and slender kenaf/ramie blend was into.

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