Dealer at Hollywood Collector's shows (Ray Courts shows and his successors), Cinecon (Hollywood), Cinevent (Columbus) and many others. Another officer of the 18th, Lieutenant George W. Grummond, a known critic of Carrington, led the cavalry, which had been leaderless since Bingham's death in early December. They increased their urging after November 3, when a cavalry company of 63 men arrived to reinforce the post. As if peculiarly impressed with some anticipations of rashness in the movement, the colonel, just after the command left, went across the parade ground to a sentry platform, halted the mounted party, and gave additional orders, understood in the garrison, and by those who heard them, to be the substantial repition [sic] of the former. Carrington sent Phillips and another messenger, Philip Bailey, out that evening on the best remaining horses. Lieutenant Grummond's wife, in her memoirs, confirmed Carrington's statement. , After leaving Fort Kearny with his infantry, Fetterman fired volleys at the small group of Indians, who harassed his flanks and taunted his soldiers. case, Fort Phil Kearny. Just before the battle, Red Cloud called for the Lakotas' most powerful "half-man", a hermaphrodite who was believed to have special powers, to give advice from the butte overlooking the proposed ambush site. Carrington's guide, famous mountain man Jim Bridger, was more succinct: "These soldiers don't know anything about fighting Indians". Even if he had taken the shortest route, Ten Eyck was highly unlikely to have arrived in time to assist Fetterman. They promised to protect the wayfarers. Fetterman soon arrived to reinforce Carrington, and the Indians retreated. He allegedly boasted, "Give me 80 men and I can ride through the whole Sioux nation. A dramatic retelling of the 1866 Sioux victory where 81 soldiers were killed. âMassacreâ references the 1866 Indian battle with a company of US troops under Captain William Fetterman on the Wyoming plains near Fort Phil Kearny (spelled Kearney by the author). There is also a Fetterman Street and Fetterman Drive in Laramie, Wyoming. Fetterman Massacre European-American immigrants traveling along the Bozeman Trail passed through Fort Phil Kearny, Wyoming. They experienced great success; in less than half an hour, they had defeated nearly 100 men under Captain Fetterman, who had been cleverly drawn out of the fort by a ruse. The mutilated bodies of Bingham and a sergeant were found several hours later. Stands In Timber, John and Margot Liberty: Papers relating to Talks and Councils held with the Indians in Dakota and Montana Territories in the Years 1866-1869. Ten Eyck advanced carefully and the soldiers found the bodies of Fetterman and all of his men in the valley. Carrington reported that he had killed 10 Indians, but both Fetterman and he were sobered by the shortcomings in organization and discipline of their largely inexperienced soldiers. A group of 10 warriors, including Crazy Horse, acted to lure a detachment of U.S. soldiers into an ambush. The actor Robert Fuller played the role of Fetterman in the episode, "Massacre at Fort Phil Kearny", which aired on October 26, 1966, on NBC's anthology television series, Bob Hope Presents the Chrysler Theatre. A blizzard began on December 22, and Phillips rode through a foot of snow and below-zero temperatures. The warriors, possibly numbering more than 1,000, congregated about 10 miles north of Fort Kearny, reconnoitered, and decided the best place to lay the trap was along the Bozeman Trail north of Lodge Trail Ridge. When he returned to Red Cloud the fourth time, he declared that in his vision he had 100 blue-coat soldiers in each hand â too many to hold. According to Calitri, historians believe evidence conflicts as to whether Carrington gave his order. â Roundup Magazine After the loss of her first husband Frances went on to marry Colonel Henry B. Carrington.  A total of 81 American soldiers and civilians died in the battle. :147â150, Although he had no experience fighting Indians, Fetterman criticized Carrington's defensive posture and expressed contempt about the Indian foes. Leading the cavalrymen was Lieutenant Horatio S. Bingham. The bodies of Fetterman and his soldiers were found more than half a mile beyond the summit of the ridge. , The Indians had few guns and fought mostly with bows and arrows, spears, and war clubs. :191–192, That evening, a civilian, John "Portugee" Phillips, volunteered to carry a distress message to Fort Laramie. He suggests that Carrington and Fetterman planned to take the offensive against the Indians attacking the wood train and that Fetterman took the Lodge Trail Ridge to gain a position to attack the Indians from the rear. This FAQ is empty.  By 1860, these traditional enemies of the Crow had taken control of their hunting grounds west of Powder River. F. H. BROWN, who was massacred by the Indians near Fort Phil, Kearny, was the son of MATTHEW BROWN, Esq., of Toledo, Ohio. Wood-cutting detachment rescue party from Fort Phil Kearny, Dakota Territory, December 21, 1866, Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Captain William J. Fettermanâ , commanding, Captain William J. Fettermanâ , 18th Infantry, commanding. Calitri suggests that he was reckless and possibly disobeyed orders during the December 6 fight. Plot Summary | Add Synopsis On December 19, the Indians attacked another wood train. Previous Next (For a day tour covering all historic sites, including the Brinton Museum, consider starting your tour early in the cool of the day at Fort Phil Kearny) TO GET TO FORT PHIL KEARNY FROM LAZY R: Take I-90 headed east for approximately 36 miles to Exit 44. One-half of the 60-soldier escort suffered frostbite. White, Richard: "The Winning of the West: The Expansion of the Western Sioux in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries". University of New Mexico Press (July 16, 2010). He established three forts along the trail, including his headquarters at Fort Phil Kearny, near present-day Buffalo, Wyoming. The Lakota alliance emerged victorious and the remaining US forces withdrew from the area. It is an insult to the spirits of our ancestors. San Antonio: Newton Publishing Company, 1999.  The Indians took about 20 minutes to kill the infantry and another 20 to dispatch the cavalry. "Indian Perspectives on the Bozeman Trail", Vaughn, p. 72â80; Grinnell, pp. Fort Phil Kearny/ Bozeman Trail Association. Fetterman and his entire force of 80 men were killed, including Lt. George Grummond, first husband of the author. Capt. They dispatched the 18th Infantry of the U.S. Army to Fort Phil Kearny, led by Colonel Henry B. Carrington. Dakotas, I am for war!â The Massacre at Fort Kearny drawing is obviously a record of both conjecture and fact. The orders were given in front of Lieutenant Grummond's house, next the colonel's, and those who were present heard them repeated with distinctness and special urgency. The Cheyenne and Arapaho took up positions on the west side of the trail and the Lakota on the east. Sheltered by the smooth Sullivant Hills that slide into Lodge Trail Ridge, this innocuous fold of land was the scene of â¦ Fetterman had been garrisoned at nearby Ft Phil Kearny, one of three posts along the Bozeman Trail in present-day Wyoming. Fort Phil Kearny Massacre Property of the Wyoming State Museum, A-1999.9.157 . Massacre at Fort Phil Kearny (1966). The staff member used the model to explain the location of the fortâ¦ She wrote My Army Life and the Fort Phil Kearney Massacre forty years after the fort was abandoned. Almost 90 soldiers were detailed to guard the wagon train. A grand attack had been planned with care and nearly every well-known Sioux chief had agreed to strike the invaders. He says that other than Carrington's accusations, "there is no evidence indicating that Fetterman was anything but a professional officer and a perfect gentleman" with a distinguished combat record. Powell returned safely, having followed orders and accomplished his mission. On the bitterly cold morning of December 21, about 2,000 Natives concealed themselves along the road just north of Fort Phil Kearney. , Estimates of Indian casualties vary widely. Some historians interpreted that as a tribute to his bravery in standing alone against several armed enemies. The U.S. military mission was intended to protect travelers on the Bozeman Trail. Within a short time, the signal came that the wood train was no longer under attack. Western with James Coburn, Bud Spencer and Telly Savalas. Reaching the top, about 12:45 pm, his men and he saw a very large force of Indians in the Peno Creek valley below. He arrived at Fort Laramie late in the evening on December 25 during a full-dress Christmas ball, and staggered, exhausted, into the party to deliver his message. His presence here is an insult and a threat. The Fetterman Massacre (also called Fetterman Fight or Battle of the Hundred Slain) is one of the events of the Great Sioux Wars. The area around the fort was the site of the Fetterman massacre and the Wagon Box Fight.  About 400 of his soldiers and most of the civilians were stationed at Fort Kearny. Monnett, John H., Where a Hundred Soldiers Were Killed: The Struggle for the Powder River Country in 1866 and the Making of the Fetterman Myth. On dispatching Grummond and the cavalry to join Fetterman, Carrington explicitly ordered him to stay with Fetterman during the operation. On November 25, 1866, Carrington's superior, General Philip St. George Cooke, ordered him to take the offensive in response to the Indians' "murderous and insulting attacks". Download for offline reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you read My Army Life and the Fort Phil Kearny Massacre (Abridged, Annotated). Their bodies were found in a small circle, huddled together for defense. Ten Eyck advanced carefully up Lodge Trail Ridge. âHear ye, Dakotas!â he exclaimed. The buildings at Fort Philip Kearny were afterward burned by Cheyenne warrior, Little Wolf. " Many other officers shared Fetterman's feelings. Bingham and Fetterman were Civil War veterans, and Fetterman had a distinguished war record. You have heard the sound of the white soldierâs ax upon the Little Piney. Carrington ordered a relief party composed of 49 infantrymen of the 18th Infantry and 27 mounted troopers of the 2nd Cavalry under the command of Captain James Powell.  Tracking the dwindling herds of buffalo, the three tribes soon ignored the treaty boundaries agreed upon and invaded Crow land. :185–189, According to Charles Alexander Eastman, in 1866, the Native American's discomfort with the degrading influence of the illegal invaders had peaked. Carrington reemphasized to his soldiers his policy of caution until reinforcements and additional horses and supplies arrived from Fort Laramie. Banner, WY: 1993. According to Margret Irvin Carrington in her book Absaraka: Home of the Crows. Use the HTML below. Original TV Movie Still. âFetterman Massacre,â Annals of Wyoming 9 (October 1932): 714-718. Carrington himself led another mounted detachment to circle north in an attempt to cut off the Indians' retreat. Portraits of Fort Phil Kearny. Civilians Wheatley and Fisher and several cavalrymen, "knowing it was fatal to retreat from Indians", halted and took shelter among several large rocks, where they were killed. The Plains Indians rarely mounted a direct charge at a foe capable of defense. University of Oklahoma Press; 1st edition (March 23, 2017). , In June 1866, Colonel Henry B. Carrington advanced from Fort Laramie into the Powder River country, now the hunting grounds of the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Northern Arapaho. Captain Frederick Brown, until recently the post quartermaster and another of Carrington's critics, and two civilians, James Wheatley and Isaac Fisher, joined Fetterman, bringing the relief force up to 81 officers and men. Fetterman's infantry took up a position among some large rocks and in hand-to-hand fighting, 49 of his men and he died. A cabin built by the Civilian Conservation Corps has been furnished to depict the period quarters of an officer's wife and a non-commissioned officer's quarters. :173â176, According to Carrington, his orders were clear. Historian Stephen Ambrose said Indian dead totaled 10 Lakota, two Cheyenne, and one Arapaho, some of them killed by 'friendly' arrow fire rather than soldier's bullets. On the 21st of December 1866, the Lakota, Cheyenne and Arapaho warriors lured Captain William Fetterman and his men into an ambush attack at Fort Phil Kearny, Wyoming to retaliate for trespassing treaty lands. They braved temperatures as low as -38Â°F (-39Â°C) during the journey to Fort Laramie. Guthrie, John. It is a necessary addition to other material on Fort Phil Kearny, the Fetterman Massacre, and the Bozeman Trail."  The Lakota and their allies were operating without the consent of the Crow. The dead soldiers had been stripped naked and mutilated. The Fetterman Fight, also known as the Fetterman Massacre or the Battle of the Hundred-in-the-Hands or the Battle of a Hundred Slain, was a battle during Red Cloud's War on December 21, 1866, between a confederation of the Lakota, Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes and a detachment of the United States Army, based at Fort Phil Kearny, Wyoming. :169â170, Red Cloud and other Indian leaders, encouraged by their successes, decided to undertake a large military operation against Fort Kearny before winter snows forced them to break up their large village on the Tongue River and disperse. Kearny: Second-Lieut. The following are the names of the Second Cavalry killed in the recent massacre at Fort Phil. Everyone knew why special emphasis was given to these orders. Fetterman may have shot himself just before American Horse cut his throat. Carrington had 700 soldiers and 300 civilians in his command. , The Indians stripped and mutilated the soldiers' bodies before leaving:188 in an apparent mirror of the Sand Creek Massacre of two years before. The decoys led him onward, with the cavalry leaving the infantry behind. The U.S. military mission was intended to protect travelers on the Bozeman Trail. Carrington prepared for an attack on the fort the evening after the Fetterman Fight, ordering all his men to stand watch, three to a porthole. However, the Indians saw through it and instead stampeded a herd of the cattle on the bank of the Powder River opposite Fetterman's intended trap. See, for example, discussions of Indian tactics in Ambrose, pp.  Indian armies rarely had a single leader or a command structure with Red Cloud as one of those who planned much of the attack, but Hump (High Backbone), a Miniconjou, was the prominent leader in the fighting. The army used a treaty right to "establish roads, military and other post". You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin.  White Elk said only two Cheyenne were killed, but he saw 50 or 60 Lakota dead â more, he said, than were killed in the Battle of the Little Big Horn 10 years later. Others who appeared in the segment were Richard Egan and Phyllis Avery as Colonel Henry Carrington and hâ¦ Depicts Richard Egan and Don Taylor in a scene from the made for TV movie "Massacre at Fort Phile Kearny". I was able to glean a lot of information about the happenings at the Fort as well as what travel was like for the women who A dramatic retelling of the 1866 Sioux victory where 81 soldiers were killed. The battlefield was examined briefly and the bodies of soldiers removed quickly. Grummond probably was killed at this point, after he had personally decapitated at least one warrior with his saber before being overwhelmed by the others. Fort Phil Kearny was one the reasons for this trip. It is a necessary addition to other material on Fort Phil Kearny, the Fetterman Massacre, and the Bozeman Trail." :174â177, About noon in the fort, Carrington and his men heard heavy firing to their north. Our old chiefs thought to show their friendship and good will, when they allowed this dangerous snake in our midst. Francis Grummond wrote that everyone present could hear the orders. All extra ammunition and explosives were deposited in a powder magazine ringed with wagons. Fort Kearny was built along the Bozeman Trail, although the establishment of a fort here was never agreed to by Red Cloud at the 1866 council at Fort Laramie. Carrington's message to General Cooke told of the Fetterman disaster and requested immediate reinforcements and repeating Spencer carbines. Red Cloud was born in 1821 into the Oglala tribe - one of seven Lakota tribes, known by non-Natives as theâ¦ The Indians covered him with a buffalo hide. He advanced along a narrow ridge leading to a flat area along Peno Creek. On December 21, 1866, eighty men under the command of Captain William Fetterman were surrounded and killed by an estimated force of over 1000 Sioux warriors in what would known as the Fetterman Massacre. John Guthrie is credited as being the artist, and indeed a Sergeant John Guthrie was a Doyle, Susan Badger. Crazy Horse was put in charge of the attack, while the older men acted as councilors. That afternoon, wagons were sent to bring the bodies back to Fort Kearny. Less than an hour later, Carrington's pickets on Pilot Hill signaled by flag that the wagon train was under attack. Eyewitness testimonies and historians stated that Red Cloud was present in the battle, although his role during the fighting is unknown. The decoy trick had worked on December 6 and they decided to try it again, this time with a force adequate to destroy any group of soldiers sent to chase them. By claiming seniority as a brevet lieutenant colonel, Fetterman asked for and was given command of the relief party. Visitors can also tour the nearby battlefields which are located within a five-mile radius of the visitor center and include interpretive trails. On November 22, Fetterman himself almost fell into an Indian ambush. :158, During the next few months, while Fort Kearny was under construction, Carrington suffered about 50 Indian attacks, losing more than 20 soldiers and civilians. The Fetterman Massacre Called a massacre at the time, the December 1866 clash near Fort Phil Kearny was, in fact, a military triumph by the Plains Indians and the Army's greatest blunder in the West until the Battle of the Little Bighorn 10 years later. Both the Fetterman Massacre and Wagon Box Fight lie within a few miles of one another just off I-90 in the vicinity of Story, Wyoming. According to a Cheyenne informant named White Elk, who was interviewed as he walked the battlefield 48 years after the event, the Indians had chosen 10 warriors as decoys to tempt Fetterman into the ambush: two Arapaho, two Cheyenne, and two from each of the three Lakota bands present: the Oglala, BrulÃ©, and Miniconjou. Lambert, Joseph. 206â209. If the Indians attacked, the 10 women and children at the fort were ordered to get into the magazine. Indian warriors approached the soldiers and taunted them. Indian accounts credit a Lakota warrior named American Horse with killing Fetterman by slashing his throat. Less than seven days after that speech, the Sioux went to Fort Phil Kearny, the new sentinel of the Oregon Trail. The tragic events associated with Fort Phil Kearny, the Fetterman Massacre, and the Wagon Box Fight form one of the most dramatic chapters in the history of the Indian Wars.For two bloody years from 1866 to 1868, the Sioux Indians, bitter and opposing the invasion of their hunting grounds by prospectors bound over the Bozeman Trail to the Montana goldfields, fought back viciously. He doubled the number of guards for the wood trains and kept the 50 serviceable horses the fort still possessed â having lost many in Indian raids â saddled and ready to sally from dawn to dark. The group of Indians chosen to decoy the soldiers included the young Oglala Crazy Horse. One Hundred Years With the Second Cavalry. , The Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 had this territory designated as Crow land. A few of the cavalry were with Fetterman, but Grummond and most of the cavalry apparently were a mile ahead of the infantry, near the flat along Peno Creek and possibly chasing other decoys. Lieutenant Wands was also instructed to repeat them. When attacked, the cavalry retreated uphill and southward, toward Fetterman and Fort Kearny. Metzger was the only soldier whose dead body was not mutilated. Grummond eventually was seen approaching with seven Indians in hot pursuit, though he managed to reach safety with Carrington and Fetterman. :198, 205, General Cooke, on receipt of Carrington's distress message, immediately ordered that he be relieved of command by Brigadier General Henry W. Wessells, who arrived safely at Fort Kearny on January 16 with two companies of cavalry and four of infantry. The Fetterman Fight took place on Crow Indian land that was guaranteed to them by a treaty signed with the US government. He saw no Indians during his ride. :177–178, About one-half mile after Fetterman had crossed the summit of Lodge Trail Ridge, the decoys gave a signal and the Indians on either side of the trail charged. The visitor's center has some displays, a film, and a model. About 10 am, Carrington dispatched a wagon train to the "pinery" â about 5 miles northwest and the nearest source of construction timber and firewood for Fort Kearny. :209–210, Lurid newspaper stories blamed Carrington for the Fetterman disaster. Carrington spent the rest of his life attempting to repair his tarnished reputation as a soldier.:217–218. Title: Grummond and the cavalry apparently remained in good order, leading their horses and presumably firing at the Indians all around them. The two civilians, Wheatley and Fisher, had their faces smashed into bloody pulp, and Wheatley had been pierced by more than a hundred arrows. Because of the steepness of the hill and the ice and snow, the Indians were slowed in their attempt to come in close quarters with the cavalry. Another four soldiers had been wounded after they pursued another Indian decoy into an ambush. The Indians sniped at the soldiers while organizing a charge, and then rushed in among the soldiers, killing them all.  The Native American warriors, invariably mounted, generally appeared in groups of 20 to 100. (26 Oct 1966).  Several of Carrington's junior officers pressed him to take the offensive. "Under no circumstances" was the relief party to "pursue over the ridge, that is Lodge Trail Ridge". The dispatch from Colonel Henry B. Carrington at Fort Phil Kearny stated that three officers, 92 men, and two citizens had been massacred four days earlier near the fort. The infantry marched out first; the cavalry had to retrieve its mounts before it could follow and catch up. The investigation noted that 12 companies of soldiers were stationed at Fort Laramie in a region at peace, while at Fort Kearny Carrington had only five companies in a region at war. The Fetterman Massacre was a significant battle during Red Cloud's War on December 21, 1866, between soldiers of the U.S. Army based at Fort Phil Kearny, Wyoming, and the Lakota, Cheyenne, and Arapaho Indians. At the top of the ridge, in violation of orders from Carrington, he chose to follow the Indian decoys north rather than turn west to rescue the wagon train. White Elk said more Indians were present than at the Battle of the Little Bighorn, which would indicate an Indian force of considerably more than 1,000 men. Lieutenant Bisbee, commanding the wagon train, sensibly took cover instead of pursuing the bait.:150â156. , Also, in the case of Captain Tenodor Ten Eyck, who was sent by Carrington to support or rescue Fetterman when the sounds of battle were heard at Fort Kearny, the captain was accused of having been slow to march to the aid of Fetterman, taking a longer route to reach him.  The Lakota saw this as the good medicine that won the battle and thereafter called it the "Battle of the Hundred-in-the-Hands". The half-man rode on his pony in a crazed manner four times between the warriors gathered on the butte and Lodge Trail Ridge, each time gathering more "soldiers" into his hands in a prophetic manner. By January 1, Carrington's fears of an Indian attack on the fort had subsided. The Toledo Blade says: "FREDERICK HALLAM BROWN was aged about 33 years. He had a distinguished Civil War record as a combat officer, but he had been court-martialed for drunkenness and abuse of civilians and was known as a bigamist. He had accompanied an escort who guarded a wagon train gathering firewood and construction timber for Fort Kearny. Red Cloud was determined to face any odds rather than bow to the invaders. The Indians in the valley slowly dispersed and disappeared. Carrington assumed that Fetterman intended to approach the Indians attacking the wood train from their rear. The tour marks the archaeological remains of the fort's buildings. Directed by Tonino Valerii (MY NAME IS NOBODY). Pilot Hill, Fort Phil Kearny, WY The fort, known to the Indians as the "hated post on the Little Piney", played an important role in Red Cloud's War. In 1868, Fort Phil Kearny was abandoned, and in November of that year, Red Cloud signed a peace agreement with the US. Massacre at Fort Phil Kearney Ten Eyck was the leader of a relief column sent from Fort Phil Kearny shortly after noon on Dec. 21, 1866, to aid a group infantry, cavalry and civilians under the command of Civil War hero William Judd Fetterman who, according to legend, boasted he could ride through the entire Sioux nation with 80 men. Fort Phil Kearney, Fetterman Massacre and The Wagon Box Fight. More than four decades later, Frances Carrington, Henryâs second wife, repeated the boast attributed to Fetterman almost verbatim in her 1910 book My Army Life: A Soldierâs Wife at Fort Phil Kearny. Rather, they struck at the rear and flanks of an opponent, using mounted mobility to probe for weaknesses and attempt to cause disorganization and panic, backing off if they encountered a stout defense, and closing in for the kill when they could do so with little risk of heavy casualties.. The snows were deep and Jim Bridger advised him that the Indians would hole up for the winter. Are we then to give up their sacred graves to be plowed for corn? ":225 Indian sovereignty over the Powder River country, however, only endured for eight years. Counting Fetterman and his men, in less than six months at Fort Kearny, Carrington had lost 96 soldiers and 58 civilians. A single Indian appeared, trying to entice the soldiers into chasing him into the woods. Monnett, John H. Eyewitness to the Fetterman Fight: Indian Views. "For the first time in its history, the United States government had negotiated a peace which conceded everything demanded by the enemy and which extracted nothing in return. , Calitri also suggests controversy about Grummond. Soldiers were told that in the last extremity they were to retreat to the magazine. Phillips accomplished the 236-mile ride to Fort Laramie in four days.  The cavalry continued its retreat, halting to fight in a flat area on the ridge 400 yards north of where the infantry lay dead. December 21 marks the 145th anniversary of the Fetterman Massacre, which took place near Fort Phil Kearny, in present-day Wyoming. Those Indians and others harassed Fetterman as he climbed Lodge Trail Ridge and disappeared out of sight of the fort. Add the first question. . During the movement, Lieutenant Grummond and Bingham with several others became separated from Carrington, who was surrounded by about 100 Indian warriors. 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