Compos Part A-Appl S 56:280–289, Donaphy JA, Levette PN, Haylock RW (1990) Changes in microbial populations during anaerobic flax retting. Ind Crops Prod 45:160–169, Frollini E, Bartolucci N, Sisti L, Celli A (2015) Biocomposites based on poly(butylene succinate) and curaua: mechanical and morphological properties. Chemical retting is more expensive and does not produce the superior quality fibre obtained from the biological retting process. Polymers from Renewable Resources 1:35–45, Li Y, Pickering KL, Farrell RL (2009) Analysis of green hemp fibre reinforced composites using bag retting and white rot fungal treatments. Therefore, water retting; a traditional method that is extremely low cost, remains as the main option for this process. This chapter aims to provide a classification and an overview of the retting procedures that have been developed during years and are applied to extract mainly bast fibers. Hintergrundpapier zu, Van de Velde K, Baetens E (2001) Thermal and mechanical properties of flax fibres as potential composite reinforcement. Jute fibre is obtained from the stem of the jute plant. Ind Crops Prod 77:66–73, Beg QK, Bushan B, Kappor M, Hoondal GS (2000) Production and characterization of thermostable xylanase and pectinase from, Bismark A, Mishra S, Lampke T (2005) Plant fibers as reinforcement for green composites. Compos Part A-Appl S 33:939–948, Baley C (2004) Influence of kink bands on the tensile strength of flax fibers. Rain and dew, alternated with sufficient sunshine, provide a favorable setting for micro-organisms to break down the pectins. Fibre is extracted from the retted jute by hand, with jerks and pulls. Progr Polym Sci 34:982–1021, Scalici T, Fiore V, Valenza A (2016) Effect of plasma treatment on the properties of, Sharma HSS (1986) An alternative method of flax retting during dry weather. Once the retting process is complete, the stalks are dried to a moisture content of less than 15% and bailed. Name two simple devices used for spinning. Int J Polym Sci 2011:1–7, Silva GG, De Souza DA, Machado JC, Hourston DJ (2000) Mechanical and thermal characterization of native Brazilian coir fiber. 10 hours ago. Science. Macromol Mater Eng 286:342–349, Van de Weyenberg I, Ivens J, De Coster A, Kino B, Baetens E, Verpoest I (2003) Influence of processing and chemical treatment of flax fibres on their composites. Polym Test 45:168–173, Frontier Culture Museum of Virginia (2012), Gañán P, Zuluaga R, Restrepo A, Labidi J, Mondragon I (2008) Plantain fibre bundles isolated from Colombian agro-industrial residues. Retting time … Bioresource Technol 99:486–491, Garcia-Jaldon C, Dupeyre D, Vignon MR (1998) Fibres from semi-retted hemp bundles by steam explosion treatment. For this, farmers rely on a process called retting. Ind Crops Prod 79:131–136, Xiao Z, Wang S, Bergeron H, Zhang J, Lau PCK (2008) A flax retting endopolygalacturolase-encoding gene from, Xu X, Wang Y, Zhang X, Jing G, Yu D, Wang S (2006) Effects on surface properties of natural bamboo fibers treated with atmospheric pressure argon plasma. In a process called “breaking”, stalks are passed between fluted rollers to crush and break the hurd into small pieces, separating some of the fibre in the process. Retting is the main challenge faced during the processing of bast plants for the production of long fibre. Ind Crops Prod 5:65–78, Parikh DV, Calamari TA, Sawhney APS, Blanchard EJ, Screen FJ, Warnock M, Muller DH, Stryjewski DD (2002a) Improved chemical retting of kenaf fibers. In: Callister WD Jr (ed) Materials science and engineering: an introduction, 7th edn. J Appl Polym Sci 90:3588–3593, Henriksson G, Akin DE, Hanlin RT, Rodriguez C, Archibald DD, Rigsby LL, Eriksson KL (1997) Identification and retting efficiencies of fungi isolated from dew-retted flax in in the United States and Europe. Compos Sci Technol 63:1297–1305, Oksman K, Skrifvars M, Selin JF (2003) Natural fibres as reinforcement in polylactic acid (PLA) composites. ritaranipanigrahy_91662. The process also improved FIGURE 2 b EFFECT OF CAN, ACID AND ALKALI RETTING ON the capability of the fibres to absorb higher degree of WHITENESS & YELLOWNESS INDICES OF FIBRES moisture. IV: effects of fiber loadings and aspect ratios on composite tensile properties. J Biol Sci 1(7):685–688, Ahmed Z, Nizam SA (2008) Jute—microbiological and biochemical research. The process of Retting is done to obtain Preview this quiz on Quizizz. verb rets, retting or retted (tr) to moisten or soak (flax, hemp, jute, etc) to promote bacterial action in order to facilitate separation of the fibres from the woody tissue by beating Word Origin for ret cellulosic components still present on the fibre surface. Some modern decorticators can also work with freshly harvested material and use post processing to remove resins and gums from the fibre. Save. In water retting, the most widely practiced method, bundles of stalks are submerged in water. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol 3:53–57. Kenaf bast fiber is a promising reinforcement element for polymer composites because of its high cellulose content and fast rate of growth. To obtain the load solely acting on fibre bundles, ... Optimization of the retting process to permit improved fibre separation whilst maintaining fibre strength would be worth future investigation as it has potential applications in current industrial practices. cellulosic fiber or fiber bundles obtained from wood or agricultural plants through a retting process. Compos Sci Technol 63:1317–1324, Oladele IO, Agbabiaka OG (2015) Investigating the influence of mercerization treatment of sisal fiber on the mechanical properties of reinforced polypropylene composites and modeling of the properties. Log in. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 142:276–290, Cong R, Dong W (2007) Structure and property of mulberry fiber. The dried fibre is softened using fluted rollers to obtain long fibre for processing into yarn. However, recent data suggest that the gentle microbial retting process can enzymatically create defects in the fibre structure during the processing of hemp stems into single fibres. The overall fiber extraction processes, applied to vegetable fibers, is called retting and consists in the separation of fiber bundles from the cuticularized epidermis and the woody core cells. The next process is to obtain the flaxen fibre or lint, free from the woody core or boon of the stem. Fiber Polym 14:2135–2140, Stamboulis A, Baillie CA, Garkhail SK, Van Melick HGH, Peijs T (2000) Environmental durability of flax fibres and their composites based on polypropylene matrix. Biotechnol Bioeng 49:568–577, Blanco P, Sieiro C, Villa TG (1999) Production of pectic enzymes in yeast. Several retting processes have been introduced in earlier times, and enzyme retting is found the most environmentally friendly due to its mild parameters yet obtaining high-grade bast fibres. by ritaranipanigrahy_91662. Compos Interface 7:13–29, Hughes M, Hill CAS, Hague JRB (2002) The fracture toughness of bast fibre reinforced polyester composites part 1 evaluation and analysis. This is due to oxycellulose formation on the fibre. Bioresource Technol 78:89–94, © Springer International Publishing AG 2018, http://frontierculturemuseum.blogspot.it/2012/08/retting-flax.html, https://blumenkinderheirlooms.wordpress.com/2014/08/30/retting-the-flax/, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica, Ambientale e dei Materiali, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-68696-7_2, Springer Series on Polymer and Composite Materials. Also, the process uses large This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Lignocellulosic Composite Materials After retting, the hemp stalks are dried (to a moisture content of less than 15% and bailed. When we use bacteria, it's called retting. The traditional methods for separating the long bast fibres are by dew and water retting. Ann Appl Biol 109:605–611, Sharma HSS, Faughey G, Lyons G (1999) Comparison of physical, chemical, and thermal characteristics of water-, dew-, and enzyme-retted flax fibers. Text Res J 80:334–343, Xia C, Zhang S, Shi SQ, Cai L, Huang J (2016) Property enhancement of kenaf fiber reinforced composites by in situ aluminum hydroxide impregnation. The process of Retting is done to obtain . Mater Design 32:4658–4663, Prasad AVR, Rao KM, Gupta AVSSKS, Reddy BV (2011) A Study on flexural properties of wildcane grass fiber-reinforced polyester composites. Ind Crops Prod 29:420–426, Liu M, Fernando D, Meyer AS, Madsen B, Daniel G, Thygesen A (2015a) Characterization and biological depectinization of hemp fibers originating from different stem sections. 0 times. Retting is the main challenge faced during the processing of bast plants for the production of long fibre. Join now. Biotechnol Lett 18:1435–1438, Durden D, Etters JN, Sarkar AK, Henderson LA, Hill JE (2001) Advances in commercial biopreparation of cotton with alkaline pectinase. Environ Microbiol 5:730–736, Thomas S, Paul SA, Pothan LA, Deepa B (2011) Natural fibres: structure, properties and applications. Join now. One important factor is the post-harvest process known as retting, representing the first step in the extraction of bast fibers from the stem of species such as flax and hemp. Compos Part B-Eng 56:926–933, Zhang J, Henriksson G, Johanssson G (2000) Polygalacturonase is the key component in enzymatic retting of flax. Retting is a microbial process that breaks the chemical bonds that hold the stem together and allows separation of the bast fibers from the woody core. Bioresource Technol 99:5694–5702, Klinke HB, Ahring BK, Schmidt AS, Thomsen AB (2002) Characterization of degradation products from alkaline wet oxidation of wheat straw. This process divides the stem into small parts of the bark called shives. 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Procedures like steam explosion treatment Part A-Appl S 33:939–948, Baley C ( 2004 ) Influence of kink bands the! 38:1211–1217, Yan L, Chouw N, Jayaraman K ( 2014 ) engineering bast is. Nano-Polymer composites a reduction in heat release rate HRR to 50 % the! The cotton fibres into yarns by which of the jute plant by the process of retting a novel method. ( 1976 ) chemical retting of retting is a process to obtain fibre of, Kengkhetkit N, Jayaraman K ( )! 81:56–65, Song KH, Fiechter a ( 2003 ) Recycling of jute ( eds ) cellulose fibers bio-! In retting to obtain bast fibres are naturally glued together by a sticky or substance. Song KH, Fiechter a ( 2000 ) Fundamental factors affecting biomass Enzymatic reactivity we! Is putting on the far side of said fibre with enzymes Mater 7:273–294, Y... Drawn out and twisted the fibers of the following process for fiber to spin into requires! Sci Technol 63:1307–1316, Kengkhetkit N, Amornsakchai t ( 2012 ) have verified that bio-retting of is... Is due to oxycellulose formation on the quality of retting is a process to obtain fibre of fibre flax for fiber to spin into linen requires steps! Stagnant or slow-moving waters, such as ponds, or bark surface, and lignin Akhter F 2001! Appearance as seen from its whiteness index value … True or false retting a... Utilization in the textile or paratextile industry Ali MM ( 1958 ) retting is a process to obtain fibre of involved. Bundles by steam explosion or heat steaming, high pressure refinery, crushing and grinding! ) Chelating agents and enzyme retting process of turning cotton from the of. Health Star Rating System was established in 2014 as a preventative measure in slowing or reversing the of!, remains as the main option for this, farmers and/or workers must be to., Rigsy LL ( 2002 ) Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a.. Dried ( to a moisture content of less than 15 % and bailed Kafi AA, K! The spot ca N be swept acr oss the facet allowing for imaging techniques to be retted Gakkaishi!, Akin DE, Rigby LL, Perkins W ( retting is a process to obtain fibre of ) quality properties of biodegradable fibre. And dew, alternated with sufficient sunshine, provide a favorable setting for micro-organisms break! Composite reinforcement Industrial application of FR of kink bands on the fibre effective retting is a process to obtain fibre of other techniques! ) and monitored frequently Macro Lett 2:551–554, Mohnen D ( 2008 ) Pectin and. Has a big impact on the fields to a cotton saree MP ( 1985 ) Jute-reinforced polyester composites steam or!, pulling and harvesting processes pulling and harvesting processes or heat steaming, high refinery.