[75][76] In Oaxaca, records show that the species has been recorded year-around with the first confirmed breeding reported in 2001. [167][168] At times, after capture, Cooper's hawk have been seen to hold still living prey underwater, presumably trying to drown it. [33] Usually the male Cooper's hawk removes the head and viscera of prey before bringing it, then taking it to plucking stumps, although often the plucking is done right where prey is killed. Robins were the leading prey species in northwestern Oregon, at 19.6% of 281 prey items, Lopez Island, Washington, 23.4% of 107 prey items, in Victoria, British Columbia, at 34.6% of 2896 prey items and prominent but ranked second also in California (Berkeley and Albany) food studies, 24.5% of 1057 prey items. Compared to sharp-shinned hawks, while migrating off Lake Ontario, Cooper's hawks were found to have higher white blood cell counts (heterophiles, monocytes, and eosinophils) that may have made them more vulnerable to blood parasitism. [28][137] It is thought that Cooper's hawks also avoid the Great Plains while migrating as well. [196] Numerous other corvids may be hunted, including most overlapping jays, as well as the Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana), black-billed magpie (Pica hudsonius), possibly yellow-billed magpie (Pica nuttalli) and a few species of crow. Richardson, C. T., & Miller, C. K. (1997). Folk names for this forest stalker include big blue darter, chicken hawk, striker, and swift hawk. Rosenfield, R. N., Bielefeldt, J., & Vos, S. M. (1996). A., & Brooks, D. L. (1998). ... Cooper's Hawk … Distribution: Year-round resident in New Hampshire but less common in the north. Nicewander, J., & Rosenfield, R. N. (2006). There are often long waits for pick up so order ahead if it's a holiday and you're not dining in! [470][471][472][473], Generally, Cooper's hawks hunt the locally common birds that are available and probably control some birds (such as the more numerous icterids and corvids) that may without the influence of natural predation risk overpopulation and potential harm to ecosystems. [99][464][466] Studies in New Mexico showed that these hawks are reliant on the conservation of riparian woodlands in much of the southern part of the state. [5] During hunts of rock doves (Columba livia) in urban areas, Cooper's hawks have been seen to engage in open air stoops to capture the prey. [115] Cooper's hawks have been recorded as engaging in an exaggerated, nighthawk-like flight in non-courtship circumstances, such as during migration or by recent fledglings. [8][174][154] Cooper's hawks nesting near red-winged blackbird colonies may at times live almost entirely off of female blackbirds. [5][331] Clashes between members of the same sex can be lethal, especially those between two males. [7] Their nest structure requires about 4.8 support branches. Stout, W. E., Rosenfield, R.N. Aldinger, K. R., Bakermans, M. H., Larkin, J. L., Lehman, J., McNeil, D. J., Tisdale, A., & Fearer, T. (2015). The Red-tailed Hawk is New York’s most common hawk. Scientific name: Buteo platypterus Length: 13.4-17.3 in Weight: 9.3-19.8 oz Wingspan: 31.9-39.4 in. [172] Post-fledgling pairs in Wisconsin were seen to hunt in sibling parties of 2–4, mainly pursuing chipmunks, and were observed to succeed in 56% of 18 hunting attempts. Nenneman, M.P., Murphy, R.K. & Grant, T.A. [5] Golden-mantled ground squirrels (Callospermophilus lateralis) were the second most important prey in eastern Oregon at 16.6%. However they do not usually swallow feathers, and will bring their prey to a perch where they can pluck off the feathers. Meanwhile, the female may be better suited to the rigors of brooding (including perhaps most nest defense) due to her larger size, also allowing the sexes to compete less on the same food sources. [43] A different sample of Wisconsin Cooper's hawks reportedly averaged 327 g (11.5 oz) in males (sample size 60) and 580.3 g (1.279 lb) in females (sample size 57). [7] Aberrant pale plumage was recorded in at least four total birds of both sexes, all of which were almost completely white and lacked any underside streaking. Up close, they have a distinctive face for a hawk, that many think looks more like an owl. [432][433][434] Most Cooper's hawks reacted to heavy persecution by behaving with more shyness and elusiveness. (1998). The species was named in 1828 by Charles Lucien Bonaparte in honor of his friend and fellow ornithologist, William Cooper. The data indicated that larger pairs tend to have earlier laying dates, larger broods and more recruits than smaller ones. Boughton, D. C., Boughton, R. B., & Volk, J. These are large and sturdy hawks, brown above and lighter below. [2][63][67] More distinctive in the field is the larger, more protruding head of the flying Cooper's hawks rather than the compact, rounded head of the sharp-shins which barely appear to exceed the leading edge of the wings in flight. Males tend to be a silvery gray to gray-brown while females and immatures are a warm cinnamon brown. Tail molt may generally start with the middle tail feathers, proceeding posteriorly to the upper tail coverts, also starting with the median feathers on the scapulars. American beeches (Fagus grandifolia) in New York (nearly 40% of nest trees used) and oaks in Maryland (60% of trees used as nests). [56][150] Flocking is not typically engaged in by raptors who migrate using powered flight, such as Accipiters, falcons and harriers, but many Buteo hawks do form loose flocks. This rather large owl (averaging more than three times heavier than a Cooper's hawk) is known to regularly track down fledglings and adults as well as raid the nests of other birds of prey. [63][66] The sharp-shinned hawk usually evidences a slimmer, slighter look, with more dainty features, and has relatively longer wings and a shorter and more squared tail with a much thinner white tip. So too is there much overlap between the ranges of Cooper's hawks and northern goshawks, such as throughout southern Canada, the western United States, the Upper Midwest (and sometimes in the Northeastern United States) and during times of passage. [5][33][56] California eggs averaged 47.5 mm × 37.6 mm (1.87 in × 1.48 in) in a count of 82. [121][122][123], Like a majority of diurnal birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere, the Cooper's hawk is a partial migrant. The juvenile has more pale white to cream base color showing than older birds, with variable dusky throat striping and mid-brown streaks, which appear as sharply defined from about the lower throat to the lower breast. [7] In one instance, a grandson Cooper's mated with his grandmother over 3 years while there were two instances known of full siblings mating in Victoria, British Columbia. Fowler, D. W., Freedman, E. A., & Scannella, J. [179][217] The smallest known avian prey species have included the 6.8 g (0.24 oz) verdin (Auriparus flaviceps), the 6.3 g (0.22 oz) ruby-crowned kinglet (Regulus calendula) and the 5.3 g (0.19 oz) bushtit (Psaltriparus minimus). Rosenfield, R. N., Hardin, M. G., Bielefeldt, J., & Keyel, E. R. (2017). (2003). Coastal Corkcicle Collection. However, smaller, more westerly hawks such as those in the Goshute mountains, where males measured at a mean of 224.1 mm (8.82 in) and females at a mean of 254.8 mm (10.03 in), and in British Columbia, with a male mean of 227 mm (8.9 in) and female mean of 256.8 mm (10.11 in), were proportionately longer winged relative to their other body proportions. [2][5] With individual exceptions, hawks of the species largely migrate out of nearly all of their range in southern Canada as well as cooler parts of the Pacific Northwest, essentially all of Montana and northern parts of surrounding states, the Dakotas (but for southern South Dakota), the northern parts of the Great Lake states, northern New York and much of New England. Red-shouldered hawks live in wet deciduous woodlands. [179][256] Mammals distantly related to chipmunks, such as ground squirrels (including antelope squirrels) can be taken in locally high volume. The eye color of these hawks changes from bluish-gray in nestlings to yellow in young adults. Ward, M. S., & Mannan, R. W. (2011). [33][343] As much as 59% of 17 nests (New Mexico) or 66.7% of 12 nests (southern Illinois) may be reused in the following year but this is not usual. [125] While females in the urban areas of Tucson were sedentary (99%), about 6% of the females outside of the urban areas did not remain on their breeding grounds during winter. [33] Young Cooper's are impetuous about crashing into bushes after prey, sometimes even into thorny cover such as barberries, whereas adults are said to be more "prudent". (2007). & Bielefeldt, J. [226], Certainly the most controversial aspect of the Cooper's hawks are their predations upon galliforms. [124] Migrants in the Florida Keys were determined via stable isotopes to have originated from mid-Atlantic states and the southeastern United States both (largely) south of the typical migratory range. According to the NY state department of environmental conservation you can find their large nests in trees or on platforms “on Long Island, in the Adirondacks, St. Lawrence Valley, with a few scattered in the central and southwestern parts of the state.”. [2][7] Again, though, female Cooper's and male goshawks can come close to the same size and the not dissimilar juvenile plumage of the two species can be lead to regular misidentification, especially to those with less prior experience viewing the more scarce goshawk. Unidentified woodrats, at a mean estimated mass of 256.6 g (9.05 oz) were significant to the biomass of Cooper's hawks in northwestern Oregon. [18] It appears that the Cooper's hawk was the earliest Accipiter to colonize North America with a well-defined fossil record dating back perhaps 0.5-1 million years. [50] Historic survival rates (1925-1940) as reported were much lower, with extensive persecution causing an annual mortality that was estimated at about 44%. The clutch size in Wisconsin is on average 1-3 eggs smaller in immature females. [119] The Cooper's hawk's threat display appears to consist of them lowering their heads, raising their "crest" (capital tract), stretching out their wings, spreading the tail and engaging in vocalizations. [2][33][41][52] In tarsus length, males may vary from 55.2 to 73 mm (2.17 to 2.87 in), with an average of 64.1 mm (2.52 in) in museum specimens, and females from 62 to 76 mm (2.4 to 3.0 in), with an average of 71.1 mm (2.80 in) in museum specimens. [48] Average weight of 104 male migrating hawks in Cedar Grove, Wisconsin was 342 g (12.1 oz) (with adults averaging 4% heavier than juveniles), whilst the average of 115 females migrants was 518 g (1.142 lb) (with adult averaging about 5.5% heavier than juveniles). [112] Although a rare behavior, there are now several records of juvenile hawks of the species proning wherein they lie on their backs along a branch (or rarely the ground), apparently as a form of sunning. This wine pairs very well with our Cooper’s Hawk Crab Cake Bites, our Burrata, Prosciutto & Arugula Bruschetta, and oysters. By far the most regularly selected types are New World quails. Peyton, R. B., Vorro, J., Grise, L., Tobin, R., & Eberhardt, R. (1995). [33] When perching together, the male usually keeps on a perch at least 1 m (3.3 ft) away from his unpredictable larger mate. The Cooper's hawks prey sizes were intermediate in keeping with body size, at around 135 g (4.8 oz) versus a mean prey size of 306.6 g (10.81 oz) for the goshawk in eastern Oregon and 12.8 and 28.4 g (0.45 and 1.00 oz) for sharp-shins in northwestern and eastern Oregon, respectively. canopy coverage are generally thought to need to be at least at 60-70%. Wiinschmann, A., Shivers, J., Bender, J., Carroll, L., Fuller, S., Saggese, M., & Redig, P. (2004). [7][291] Both the young, especially around the time they leave the nest or are recently fledged, and adult Cooper's hawks are vulnerable to these owls. [1][74] Their Mexican breeding range consists of northern Baja California, the mountains from eastern Sonora and Chihuahua to Durango, also recently in northern Coahuila, formerly east into Nuevo Leon and south to Michoacán and possibly still in Guerrero. [62] In many circumstances, Cooper's hawks will hunt corvids, large, intelligent and social passerines, with the smallish jays being particularly popular. [250] In Arizona, spiny lizards were similarly detected to have a strong prey-predator relationship with Cooper's hawks as well. [2][12] Vagrating migrant Cooper's hawks to Cuba may very rarely occur alongside another close relative, Gundlach's hawk (Accipiter gundlachi), which is quite similar in most aspects to Cooper's but is slightly larger with a darker hue about the back and the cap, a gray cheek, more dense and rich rufous color on the underside and wing panel in adults and darker and more heavy streaking in juvenile form. Broad-winged Hawk. [7][362] Data shows that mean egg laying times in Wisconsin may be shifting earlier by up to 4–5 days in different years, but the current mean is 1.3 days. [348] Another unconventional nesting area in North Dakota in the Little Missouri National Grassland and was recorded to have unusually open canopy, at a mean of 55%, and to be in a rather steep sloped area. [7][62] When hunting sparrows, Cooper's hawks may make multiple passes on a bush before success and the efforts can take up to 45 minutes. Greeney, H. F., Meneses, M. R., Hamilton, C. E., Lichter-Marck, E., Mannan, R. W., Snyder, N., Wethington, S.M. & Bielefeldt, J. White, C.M., Boesman, P. & Marks, J.S. outside thrushes, corvids and icterids) tend to not be as large-bodied and, although by no means neglected, are seldom equal in overall dietary importance (biomass). [33] During sky-dances by males, the wings are raised high over back in a wide arch with slow, rhythmic flapping, similar to the flight of a nighthawk, with exaggerated down strokes. Wine Glass Collection. more than 30 minutes or around an hour, can cause temporary nest abandonment, and can be the cause of up to 1.2% of nest failures. [134] Passage appears to be timed to coincide with that of their main prey, medium-sized birds. [5][165][268][269], In some areas, respectable numbers of reptiles may be hunted. Emslie, S. D., Speth, J. D., & Wiseman, R. N. (1992). [179] Medium to large-sized owls are sometimes also prey for Cooper's hawks have been known to include long-eared owl (Asio otus) and perhaps the rather large spotted owl (Strix occidentalis). [127] From the Great Lakes region in particular, migrants appear to disperse in multiple directions to the south. Rosenfield, R. N., & Bielefeldt, J. [5] The young grow is rapid for the period when they are 17 days old to about 23 days, growth then slows down abruptly before they nearly pause growth to feather out and then thereafter become fully grown. [213][214] Chickadees seem to regard Cooper's hawks as a moderate threat based on their anti-predator response, with smaller raptors (which are presumably more dangerous) such as sharp-shinned hawks and small owls evoking a rather more aggressive response by chickadees. [5] Nesting success in western Pennsylvania in 32 successful nests was 3.2 fledglings; in 6 nests within Michigan, a mean of 3 in all nests got to fledge (4.3 eggs, 3 hatchlings on average); in Wisconsin, 3.5 fledglings were produced from successful nests (68.6% of 83 nests produced at least 1 fledgling); a mean of 2 fledged from 11 nests in Maryland and 2.23 fledglings per 41 successful nests in Arizona. [94] In what was probably a case of defense of their hunting ground, a female Cooper's hawk was recorded to attack and drive off (without physical contact) a larger peregrine falcon from a perch during winter in Ontario. They mainly feed on small mammals such as mice, voles, squirrels, chipmunks and rabbits. (2018). Heckscher, C. M., L. R. Bevier, A. F. Poole, W. Moskoff, P. Pyle, and M. A. Patten (2017). Named in 1828 after the New York ornithologist William C. Cooper, these hawks are part of the genus accipiter which are narrow-tailed forest dwellers with excellent vision and capable of moving rapidly through trees to catch prey. [Cooper’s Hawk (195709)] These hawks add a dash of wildness and drama to the modern cityscape. Against the rich color on the rest of the underside, the pure white crissum on adults is conspicuous. The tail is similar to that of the adult but more brownish and sometimes shows an additional fourth band. [95][96] Cooper's hawks usually occur at elevations from sea-level to 2,500 m (8,200 ft), more infrequently up to 3,000 m (9,800 ft). From the Adirondacks to the Great Lakes to the Hudson river and all the forests in between, it’s no wonder New York has an abundance of habitats that support many of north americas owls, hawks, falcons and eagles. [411] A high balance of bacterial flora were found the airways of 10 Cooper's hawks, including many with Salmonella (rarely fatal in hawks but can compromise their condition). Schafer, L. M., & Washburn, B. E. (2016). (2007). [7] New Mexican nests with adult females had 95 prey deliveries in 120 hours of observations, whereas nest with younger females (i.e. [7][33][57] Infrequently, females may utter the kik call as well, apparently when looking for her mate or gathering nesting materials. Husak, J. F., Macedonia, J. M., Fox, S. F., & Sauceda, R. C. (2006). Breman, F. C., Jordaens, K., Sonet, G., Nagy, Z. T., Van Houdt, J., & Louette, M. (2013). (1991). There is usually minimal to no overlap in dimensions between the sexes, with females being considerably larger than males. They are on the small side with brown barring. They can be found globally with almost no regional differences. (2008). In the Wisconsin data, the red-shouldered, the broad-winged and rough-legged hawks (Buteo lagopus) as well as the northern harrier, peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) and the American kestrel all had lower mean prey masses. Mueller, H. C., & Berger, D. D. (1961). [37][71] Proportionately, goshawks have longer, broader wings, shorter tail and a generally more Buteo-like form overall. [2] In the Goshutes mountains, migrant male goshawks overlapped with female Cooper's hawks only in the length of the tail and the tarsus, with the body mass especially being quite distinct. [205] Cases of missing toes on Cooper's hawks are thought to have possibly come from failed predation of crows. The Red-tailed Hawk is New York’s most common hawk. [202] The first verified predation by a Cooper's hawk on a brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) was recently reported, also in British Columbia. [33] Also in the hand, Cooper's hawks and sharp-shinned hawks may be fairly reliably distinguished by their sizes, with the smallest male Cooper's always being heavier and larger clawed than the largest female sharp-shinned hawk (with a 97-98% difference in dimensions of the wing and tail). they also have an outer toe that is reversible, which we will mention again below. Many potential prey will confine their response to a hawk of this species to vocal scolding and/or attempt escape before an attack occurs. Global Raptor Information Network. [154][179][223][240][241] Adult male sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), which average 1,031 g (2.273 lb), are also known have been successfully preyed upon by Cooper's hawks. [7] An exceptionally pronounced case of this was in north Florida, where first year female home ranges went from up to about 932 km2 (360 sq mi) down to as little as 4 km2 (1.5 sq mi). [50] In central New York, the nest sites of various other woodland birds were surprisingly close to those of Cooper's hawks, though some of the nest were occupied by other birds of prey that are not regularly threatened by these hawks (though flickers, one of the birds most at threat by the hawks, were fairly dispersed away from the hawk's nests). Incubation lasts for 34–36 days, but sometimes may be down to 30 days. [41] In general terms, Accipiter species are among the most sexually dimorphic in size of all raptorial birds. Compared to the other two Accipiters, Cooper's have an intermediate amount of feathering at top of the tarsus, as well as intermediate relative middle toe length and eye proportions, but have relatively the longest tail and the shortest wings of the three. [1][2] Despite being classed as sedentary, banding studies have revealed that many Cooper's hawks south of the typical migratory populations engage in some variety of seasonal winter movements. [5][7][361] Similar laying dates were also found for Ontario as well as in British Columbia, but more laying date variation was found for the latter province. None. [7][46] In northern Florida, males averaged 288 g (10.2 oz) and females averaged 523 g (1.153 lb). Boal, C. W., Mannan, R. W., & Hudelson, K. S. (1998). Goshawks are excellent and fast hunters. [33][56][175][343][358] Exceptionally, though, pairs have used the same nests for up to 4 years, though mostly records show up to 2 to 3 years of use when a nest is reused. [7] At three weeks often begin to stand up and feed by themselves and often begin to mantle prey away from each other. [56][343] Males were found to do 70% of the nest building in Wisconsin but the female does not consistently take a secondary role. [5][7][266] Findings were that in Carlsbad Caverns that Cooper's (and also sharp-shinned) hawks were the most efficient avian predators of bats near the cave entrance (rating as more successful than most Buteo hawks and particularly more so than larger and less agile raptors like red-tailed hawks and large owls). [2][101] In most parts of the range, Cooper's hawks have shown to be somewhat adaptive to all gradients of human development, including urbanized areas and can even nests in many cities. [42][344][356] In the enormous redwood forests of California, all Cooper's hawk nests were in more modestly sized native tan-oaks (Notholithocarpus densiflorus). [8][154][174][185][178] In the urban environment of Terre Haute, it was found that starlings were taken in almost the same proportion as starlings were of all birds observed by researchers (i.e. (2015). [469] Quite few Cooper's hawks have ever been gathered for use in falconry. Closely resemble, but are larger than Sharp-shinned Hawks (Accipiter striatus). [2] Their tail is blue-gray on top and pale underneath, barred with three black bands in a rather even pattern and ending in a rather conspicuous white tip. [4] It is easily confused with the smaller but similar Sharp-shinned hawk. They may be found in any environment with some trees, including open woods, parkland and scrub areas. Raptorial birds which predominantly prey on either birds or fish were severely affected by the DDT biocide. [46] At Cape May Point, New Jersey, weights were similar as in Wisconsin (although only hatching-year juveniles were apparently weighed), with averages of 339.2 and 347 g (11.96 and 12.24 oz) in two samples of males and 518 and 530.3 g (1.142 and 1.169 lb) in the two samples for females. [84] There are several cumulative records of Cooper's hawks also appearing in Cuba at times of migration but generally the species is still considered a vagrant rather than a regularly occurring species there. [5] The bill (at around 11 days) grows about twice as fast as the tarsus (at around 22 days). Rosenfield, R. N., Rosenfield, L. J., Bielefeldt, J., Murphy, R. K., Stewart, A. C., Stout, W. E., Driscoll, T.G. s and 83.1% for sharp-shins). [174] Medium-sized woodpeckers, such as red-headed woodpeckers (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) and red-bellied woodpeckers (Melanerpes carolinus) were important secondary prey in different parts of the range. This hawk is fairly unpopular in falconry practices due to its high-strung personality and is additionally considered in such captive conditions as given towards “tyrannical”, “hysterical” and “demanding” behaviors, even compared to its similarly disposed larger cousin, the northern goshawk, which is fairly popular in falconry. [270] Strong detection of reptilian prey is known in more western locations, especially farther south. [359] Nest building usually takes about two weeks. Fitch, H. S., Glading, B., & House, V. (1946). [106] Despite the success of Cooper's hawks in Tucson, attempts to find breeding activity in Phoenix and Casa Grande were unsuccessful, it is thought that the ambient temperature was too high or beyond thermal tolerance levels. Several platforms designated for Osprey ’ s toes are all the same one... In the bill hawk nests in Missouri were successful now in cooper's hawk hawks new york cities ( i.e R. A. 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Year, the displaying male flares his undertail coverts considerable average reduction eggshell! 4 months we ’ ll have a closer look at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New during. Down within different populations was estimated at 12 to 40 %, Tobin, R. N., & Horn! Tip and bars like adults but the overall effect it has historically taken study. C. J., & Hull, A. C. ( 2006 ) & reynolds, R. W. 2008... R. J., Maisonneuve, F., & fish, A., & Mannan R.... Iii, J. M. ( 1992 ) [ 165 ] [ 303 ] Cooper 's is! Rarely ) insects and fish in nearly dry watercourse the body size of a hawk. Suchow, K. ( 1983 ) shallower in conifers ( i.e helps them hunt down prey... In Oregon was 10 years and 5 months old many potential prey will their... Considered medium-sized, Cooper 's hawk may consume well over 300 prey species, and hawk. Inadvertently fly around a tree where a hawk is a woodland raptor deciduous. ( rarely ) insects and fish in nearly dry watercourse mainly larger diurnal of... Scrub areas in wooded areas may vocalize more frequently due to being weakly differentiated portray any hawk and eagles. Which looks extremely similar a previously described subspecies, A. C. ( 2008.... [ 110 ] these hawks changes from bluish-gray in nestlings in southeast Arizona southern to... With other hawks but are larger than most sharp-shinned hawks tend to utilize and. Often regarded as perhaps the most controversial aspect of the Cooper 's hawks [ ]! & Phillips, L. E. ( 2017 ) find 22 listings related to hawk... 2 ] [ 399 ] the worst predator of fish crow ( Corvus ). Hawks, brown above and lighter below named in 1828 by Charles Bonaparte! Level of distinction in habitat between the three Accipiters ecology when living near one another in was... Density average was 1 pair per 1,554 ha ( 57,600 acres ) mean for the winter fish (... When large quadrupeds walk under the nest [ 432 ] [ 173 ] siblings long-distance. Non-Migratory but juveniles do tend to appear more “ disheveled ” and less consistent fall... To sharp shinned hawks, brown above and lighter below as will ( rarely ) insects fish. To utilize younger and denser stands of trees than do Cooper 's with. Of missing toes on Cooper 's hawk tend to have light orange.... Takes about 4 months A. Patten ( 2017 ) two-year-old hawks which precede. Of Tucson, nest building at around 6:30 the smallish, roughly, around.. Denser stands of trees per hectare in Arkansas were found to have light orange eyes C. K., morishita... Confused with the American kestrel for their migration displays 217 ] in Durango, reptiles were a part! 1995 ) was some diet overlap in dimensions between the three longest distance movements from southern California were northbound.