The process of standardisation involves both ‘ruler-makers’ and ‘rule-breakers’; the former makes the rules for spelling and pronunciation, in addition to selecting/eliminating the meaning of commonly used words. Language standardisation is very much a social process, and is powered by people. First, he nominated the central dialect as the standard language of the country as he believed it to be “where the heart of [the] country is, and because it has played a dynamic role in the history of [their] literature” (Elkartea 32). Language Ideologies and Media Discourse: Texts, Practices, Politics, ed. What Is Koineization (or Dialect Mixing)? Hence, we must remember that the language form chosen by a society is not necessarily because it is the strongest, but could be simply because it is the form used by the upper class and hence viewed in higher regard. "For one important example of the push/pull between divergence and standardization--and between vernacular language and writing--I'll summarize the Literacy Story... about Charlemagne, Alcuin, and Latin. 90% of 570 language educators used the standard language daily (viz. Deumert, Ana. The latter, in contrast, are then stigmatized for using non-standard dialects. The term standardization is generally used within linguistics to refer to the process of bringing about a standard language. Hence the prestige and legitimacy of a ‘standard’ does not in the first instance, as It is the choices societies make that result in differing languages. These discourses emphasize the desirability of uniformity and correctness in language use, the primacy of writing and the very idea of a national language as the only legitimate language of the speech community...", John E. Joseph, 1987; quoted by Darren Paffey in "Globalizing Standard Spanish." Primarily concerned with the evolution of specific human languages, standardisation can only occur when a society has an existing cultivation of their own language and communicative methods. The standard language is a planned and designed unitary referential variant the purpose of which is to provide cultural, political, and social cohesion on the territory on which it is official. Another interesting point relates to the superiority of specific language forms. Despite being associated with the upper class and being well-educated, most recent reports suggest that this form is practiced by a mere 2% of the population (British Library Board). (domains, timetables, territorial extent, etc.) Formulation: setting the goals of the policy. Once it has gained general approval, the standard language is rigorously maintained through several means. The goal of standardization is to ensure uniformity to certain practices within the industry. Finally, we must be wary of automatically forming relations between the upper class and standard forms of language. Standardization. Language unification, standardization and corpus development imply a sophisticated national or collective effort which has to deal with philosophical, political — and technical — issues. If a language form is used by the upper class, society automatically esteems it over other forms and views it as the supreme option, even though it does not necessarily allow us to communicate or express ourselves better than other forms. The concern surrounding language variation dates back to the 16th century, where the first attempt for language standardisation was made. In sociolinguistics, language variety—also called lect—is a general term for any distinctive form of a language or linguistic expression. Therefore, it is evident that it does not represent the consensus of the United Kingdom. What motivations were there for language standardisation? Ph.D., Rhetoric and English, University of Georgia, M.A., Modern English and American Literature, University of Leicester, B.A., English, State University of New York. They believed that the promotion of the standard was “essential to turn Basque into a modern instrument”, 61% of the 196 Basque writers that were interviewed used the standard language in their writings for they believed in the “need to convert the language into an instrument of culture”. Psychology Press, 1997. The first is an elaboration of function, where people of higher social standing perceive this language form to be more valuable and important than other variations. Learning about the standardization of languages, or how languages get formalized and codified in one specific way, offers insight into the overlap between linguistics, culture and politics. “Political correctness’: The politics of culture and language.” Discourse &. To conclude, as societies grow and evolve over the years, its language form will face similar changes. March 2015, Dudleylm.files.wordpress.com. A&C Black. However, as the use of ‘h’ were valued by the northern Basque writers and speakers, Mitxelena saw the importance of its inclusion in the standard language. shifting from a circle of peers to public spaces where potential business investors, migrants, policymakers are available). creating a type-able Unicode). Language educators were also deeply motivated to teach the standard Basque. Dr. Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks. Certain sects of the community were opposed to the inclusion of the letter ‘h’. 2010. STANDARDIZING? Language standardisation begins by selecting one of the many forms of language that exist in a society to be the standard. In fact, we use language in many different ways, some of these are, the informational, the expressive, the directive, the phatic, the aesthetic. Standardization of language course is considered very important in the process of language planning. Oure language is also so dyuerse in it selfe that the commen maner of spekynge in Englysshe of some contre can skante [= scarcely] be vnderstondid in som other contre of the same lond (Lydgate, 1530) And certaynly our langage now vsed varyeth ferre [ far ] from that whiche was vsed and spoken whan I … Those whom have accepted and are familiarised with the standard language can engage in discourse (Deumert 2), so to generate knowledge about communicative methods and processes. More people speak a variety of Chinese as a Lastly, a writing system is established to prescribe this language (along with official dictionaries and guidebooks). One example of standardization is the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)GAAPGAAP, or Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, is a commonly recognized set of rules and procedures designed to govern corporate account… One example of this is British Received Pronunciation, which some scholars deem the ‘standard’ form of English in the United Kingdom (Milroy 532-533). Societies themselves pick their own standard forms of language, and hence, different societies in different places, and of different cultures, can all pick vastly different (or even somewhat similar) language forms to adhere to. Indeed, the process of standardisation is an on-goingone,and a whole range of forces are at work. It has been widely documented and is now generally recognized that the study of standardisation is primarily about ideologies and hegemonies pertaining to language. Getting It: Language standardisation and the Industrial Revolution. Language standardization is often looked to by language communities as a means for language maintenance and strengthening cultural integrity, yet it may also contribute to varying degrees of linguistic discrimination and social conflict. Hence, we can see that this division is somewhat “man-made”. Latin didn't diverge much till the end of the Roman empire in the fifth century, but then as it lived on as the spoken language throughout Europe, it began to diverge somewhat into multiple 'Latins.' In this video, I will introduce the concepts of programming language standardization, and team coding guidelines. The effects of language standardization on acceptance and use are explored using the four constructs of Venkatesh et al.’s (2003) Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) – effort expectancy, performance expectancy, social influence and facilitating conditions – as a conceptual framework and guide in the analysis. Standardization in language, as distinct from script or notation, comea out of these two features, variation in speech and association of language with overtones of social and personal origins. We analyze a set of linguistic features with the aim of depicting the dynamics of intralinguistic and interlinguistic convergence as they relate to the ongoing standardization processes in these languages. This cultural evolution gives rise to an interesting phenomenon known as ‘language standardisation’. Continuum, 2010, Peter Trudgill, Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th ed. It is an ongoing historical process that develops a standard written and oral language to be practiced by everyone in a society. Accessed 10 March 2017. Accessed 1 April 2017. The language of Basque is a language form derived from Basque Country. Hence, the dispersal of a language must be credited to its respective speakers—people, and their practices and customs—and not the core of language itself. Among, 431 publications made between 1967 and 1977, only 3.3% of books published in 1967 had incorporated the new rules of spelling, declined and conjugated forms. People expect their language to serve a role that is beyond communication. The term standard language occasionally refers to the entirety of a language that includes a standardized form as one of its varieties. Leith, Dick. Standardization may occur as a natural development of a language in a speech community or as an effort by members of a community to impose one dialect or variety as a standard. Then a number of theoretical frameworks for the study of communication are discussed: Speech Act theory, Conversation Analysis, and theories concerned with ... Natural language facilitates communication in several other respects, be- by Sally Johnson and Tommaso M. Milani. Critics. For many newer countries, though, the development of a standard language has had to take place fairly rapidly, and government intervention has therefore been necessary. One modern-day example is pop-culture icon Rihanna, and the collective mockery she faced for her song ‘Work’, which uses patois and creole (a language derived from a mix of several languages). Rather, this division is caused by external social, geographical, and cultural factors (Milroy 541). From a broader perspective, acquiring a standardised language essentially allows for efficient communication and assimilation within a larger social group (e.g. The standardisation of language does not only unify the various dialects and sub-dialects of Basque, but also symbolises the unification of a society with diverse, and presumably hazy, historical roots. Some features of this site may not work without it. 19. Dudley, Leon. Mayr, Andrea. The confluence of diverse cultures and perspectives within a territory serves as one explanation for the evolution of language. would be the ones to spread the use of this standard language. Although there is a link between social standing and standard language, in that the upper class can influence the selection of language form (as enunciated in previous sections), one does not always translate into the other. Language and power: An introduction to institutional discourse. Elkartea, Garabide. However, in 1977, almost 65.4% of publications complied with the standard guidelines. Typically, the language varieties that undergo substantive standardization are the dialects … Furthermore, it creates a sort of ignorance towards other dialects and ways of speaking. Language standardisation, while useful and essential within a society, also has its drawbacks. Development in these areas create pressure to establish regularity in other areas, such as currency and language, to facilitate and increase efficiency in communication between countries. Language can have scores of characteristics but the following are the most important ones: language is arbitrary, productive, creative, systematic, vocalic, social, non-instinctive and conventional. THE INFLUENCE OF LANGUAGE STANDARDIZATION ON LINGUISTIC NORMS THE INFLUENCE OF LANGUAGE STANDARDIZATION ON LINGUISTIC NORMS Bartsch, Renate 1985-06-01 00:00:00 * I thank Bjorn Jernudd, Monsur Musa, and K . Romper, 25 March 2016, https://www.romper.com/p/rihannas-work-lyrics-use-creole-patois-totally-confusing-music-critics-7707. Language Standardisation:Basque Recovery II. Similarly, we cannot assume that the form used by the upper class are the standard language form of the society. A social history of English. This process brings to a language a uniformity and consistent norm and form of writing and speaking, and the promotion of uniformity and consistency usually entails the reduction or elimination of variation. The chosen one is then accepted by the dominant clans in society, who have the power to control how and where this language is standardized and diffused. There are different regional dialects, class dialects, situationalvarieties. Language standardization is the process by which conventional forms of a language are established and maintained. Although standardising language may improve efficiency for the general population, there will be some who fall short of this new-found utility. Fairclough, Norman. With that perspective, we shall move to a unique, nation-wide territory where smaller-scale language standardisation took place: Basque Country. From a social perspective, language standardisation is dependent on how a society or social group chooses to regulate their language, and thus, what is standard to one group is not necessarily the standard to another. Language standardization is the process by which conventional forms of a language are established and maintained. Thus, we can see that language standardisation is not only concerned with linguistic and literary goals, but also largely fuelled by economics, trade, and enterprise (Milroy 534-535). We use language and that language is a part of society. Standardization, it is argued, is necessary in order to facilitate communications, to make possible the establishment of an agreed orthography, and to provide a uniform form for school books. With every generation, new words are constantly invented and introduced into the language lexicon, which may then be taught to the next generation (Crystal 132). Penguin, 2000, (Peter Elbow, Vernacular Eloquence: What Speech Can Bring to Writing. Oxford University Press, 2012, Ana Deumert, Language Standardization, and Language Change: The Dynamics of Cape Dutch. With increasing literacy rates to match this language demand, citizens could advance from primary to secondary level, manufacturing-related occupations. Such networks proved particularly important for innovations requiring collaboration. A standard language is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and usage and is employed by a population for public communication. It creates a new pattern of understanding which people could then apply in social settings (Mayr 5). Thus, keep in mind that language standardisation is a conscious course of development that produces both good and bad effects. Pop quiz: Do you know the difference between an interpreter and a translator?It’s a foundational definition in the language industry, but the two can be easy to mix up. Authority In Language. “Language Ideologies and the Consequences of Standardisation”. implementation and elaboration). We need not thinkof them as being chronological. Selection. Second, he then proposed the following series of changes: Unfortunately, Mitxelena’s proposals were not met with instant consent. For instance, the development of a ‘standard’ form of language creates assumptions about the ‘correct’ way to use language, which is then understood to be ‘common-sense’ and common knowledge. It is a three-step process of standardising literacy/script, vocabulary, and then digital rendering (i.e. Ten years after the proposal was passed, efforts to implement the standard language was assessed and the results were as follow: In overall, it is evident that the majority believed in the good of a standardised language in Basque. This essentially re-emphasises that language standardisation is a process, not an end-result. In the end, Mitxelena reasoned that “the young are always right” (Elkartea 36), and since the young writers were in favour of the letter ‘h’, the spelling reformation was ruled. Learn more. James and Lesley Milroy expressed that language standardisation does not symbolise an actual end-product, but rather, a significant process with no completion. Particularly the older, conservative delegates believed it to be a pointless addition of an alphabet that could not be pronounced (Elkartea 34). Fast-forwarding to the nineteenth century, the people pf Basque expressed an increasing desire to preserve the nation’s language culture with all its diversities. Structural Features of Language and Language Use ... of standardization in technical set-tings. Chapter 12 – Evolution of Internet Language, Chapter 2 – Language as a biological adaption, Chapter 3 – Language as a cultural adaptation, Chapter 4 – New quantitative methods to study the evolution of language, Chapter 6 -Typology in Language Universals, Chapter 7 – Natural laboratories for language evolution: Pidgins, Creoles, and Sign Language, Chapter 8 – Language Evolution in the Laboratory, Chapter 9 – Cooperation and Language Evolution, Chapter 13 – From Pre-language Gestures VS Sign Language, Chapter 14 – Parallels Between Language Evolution and Child Language Acquisition, Chapter 15 – Evolution of Nonverbal Communication in Hominids, Chapter 17 – Origins and Evolution of Written Language, Chapter 18 – Language of Artificial Intelligence and IT Evolution, To regulate the use of Basque spelling and lexicon, To contribute to the creation of a language that will be valid for all parts of Basque. 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